introduction not listed by title by place by editor by publisher by special subject covers
1789-1810 1811-1820 1821-1830 1831-1840 1841-1850 1851-1860 1861-1872

American children’s periodicals, 1831-1840

A newstand of American children’s periodicals, 1831-1840

This bibliography—with a detailed introduction—is available as an ebook from Barnes & Noble, Kobo, Apple, Scribd, 24symbols, and

[NOTES: Unless noted, page size is the size when trimmed, usually for binding; page size is approximate. Page size is described as height by width, thus: [measurement in inches]″ h x [measurement in inches]″ w

about frequency: semimonthly: twice a month (usually 24 issues per year); biweekly: every other week (usually 26 issues per year); bimonthly: every other month (usually 6 issues per year)

about availability: selections or complete issues available for free on the Internet, or available at libraries on microform or in databases


APS, American Periodical Series (microfilm; also, digital database)

AAS, American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts

AASHistPer, American Antiquarian Society Historical Periodicals (digital database; series 1-5)

Batsel, Union List of United Methodist Serials, 1773-1973, comp. John D. Batsel and Lyda K. Batsel (Evanston, Illinois: n.p., 1974)

NUC, National Union Catalog

OCLC, database available at many institutions via WorldCat (information may also be available in the NUC)

ULS, Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada, ed. Winifred Gregory (New York, New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1927)]

The Scholar’s Gazette (also The Scholar’s Weekly Gazette) ; 13 April-27 July 1831 • The Scholar’s Gazette ; Sept 1831-1832

edited by: E. B. Adams

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

frequency: weekly

description: Page size, 10.5″ h • No issue for Aug 1831

source of information: NUC


• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 11.

The Sabbath School Messenger, and Children’s Friend ; 1 May 1831-1832?

published: Albany, New York: Lewis G. Hoffman.

frequency: semimonthly

description: page size, 9.5″ h

• Religious focus: “Published under the patronage of the Albany Sabbath School Union.” [OCLC]

relevant information: Hoffman published several several (unsuccessful) periodicals for the Sabbath School Union, including the Albany Christian Register (for adults).

probably continues: The Sabbath School Messenger, and Children’s Friend (Oct 1828-Sept 1829?)

source of information: OCLC

Juvenile Gazette ; 2 July 1831

cover/masthead: 1831

published: Mendon, Massachusetts: George W. Stacy.

frequency: semimonthly: Saturday

description: 4 pp.; page size, 11.25″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• Religious focus: nonsectarian

relevant information: Only one issue?

relevant quotes:

• The proposal implies that there were not enough publications for children, but too many periodicals for them: “Among the numerous publications that are now issued from the Press, it is perhaps somewhat strange that so few of their number, (excepting books) are at all calculated to meet the wants and attract the attention of the Juvenile Class of the community. The Subscriber is well aware that new publications have become already too numerous to obtain support sufficient for their permanent continuance: nevertheless, considering as he does one of this kind much needed—after mature reflection he is induced to make the trial. Believing a paper of this kind, judiciously managed, (as he trusts the Juvenile Gazette will be) well calculated to teach the young idea, to aspire after that knowledge which will make them ‘wise unto salvation,’ he anxiously solicits the patronage of all those parents and guardians who feel favorable to the undertaking.”

• The paper was to be religious, but nonsectarian: the publisher “considers it here entirely useless to give in detail a plan of the Gazette—suffice it to say, his main object is to promote early piety and morality among the rising generation; to encourage them to walk in wisdom’s path of pleasantness and peace.—Nothing of a sectarian character will on any condition whatever find its way into the columns of this paper—for the Publisher deems it of vital importance that the young mind should be left entirely free, to choose for itself in riper years a religious creed.” [prospectus. 1 (2 July 1831); p. 1.]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 2; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 2

Youth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine ; Sept 1831

edited by: Rev. Gabriel Capers

published: Macon, Georgia: office of the Christian Repertory

frequency: monthly

description: 36 pp.; duodecimo. Price: $1/ year

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant information:

• A sample issue may have been printed in July 1831.

• Capers also edited the Georgia Christian Repertory, a Methodist weekly. [Sherwood; p. 318]

relevant quotes:

• The editor of the Macon Telegraph appears to have seen a sample issue: “ ‘Youth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine.’—This is the title of a new Periodical just commenced in this town. It is a neat duodecimo of thirty six pages to each number, whose object is explained by its title,) to be published monthly, at one dollar per annum, in advance. It is issued from the office of the Christian Repertory, and published by Rev. G. Capers. Such a periodical is calculated to be of vast importance to the rising generation, and we unhesitatingly recommend it to the liberality of the public.” [“Youth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine”]

• The editor had great plans: “The Youth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine will embrace narrative and facts from ancient and modern History, Chronology &c.—the elements of Science and Belleslettres [sic] and moral maxims and sentiments founded upon the principles of the Bible, Biographical sketches of Americans, distinguished for talents and virtue, and obituary notices of Youth and Children, remarkable for obedience and morality, will have a place in its columns, without respect to Political or Sectarian partialities. The proprietor designs to interdict fiction and superstition in all its pages, and to employ his best efforts to render it an instructive and interesting family visiter.” [“Prospectus”]

• The result was quite Georgia-oriented: “It lists the governers of Georgia, gives an outline of the Georgia Constitution, Judiciary, etc., and contains a biographical sketch of George Walton, Georgia signer of the Declaration of Independence. The magazine contains more general information, historical and biographical, than anything else.” [Flanders; p. 25] Hoole states that “[t]he leading article is a sketch of the life of William Henry Drayton.” [Hoole]

• Disappointed by lack of subscriptions, Capers decided against publishing another issue and returned subscribers’ money in March 1832. [Stroupe]

source of information: Telegraph; Flanders; Sherwood; 1830 census; Stroupe


• M19. 1830 United States Census; reel #16: 54. [via]

• “Youth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine.” Macon Telegraph [Macon, Georgia] 5 (16 July 1831); p. 114.

• “Prospectus.” Macon Telegraph [Macon, Georgia] 5 (16 July 1831); p. 115.

Georgia Christian Repertory [Macon, Georgia] 15 Dec 1831.

Georgia Christian Repertory [Macon, Georgia] 7 March 1832.

• William Stanley Hoole. A Check-list and Finding-list of Charleston Periodicals, 1732-1864. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1936; p. 33.

• Adiel Sherwood. A Gazetteer of the State of Georgia, 3rd ed. Washington City: 1837.

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines: Literary Periodicals to 1865. N.p.: The University of Georgia Press, 1944; p. 25.

• Henry Smith Stroupe. The Religious Press in the South Atlantic States, 1802-1865. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1956; p. 137.

The Child’s Cabinet ; 1832

published: New Haven, Connecticut: J. L. Cross.

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 7″ h • price, 50¢/ year

relevant quote: “I have been much pleased to observe that Mr. Cross has relinquished the publication of the ‘Sabbath School Herald,’ and as a substitute he now publishes the ‘Child’s Cabinet.’ The first number of the latter work, which is calculated to instruct and amuse children, and which is ornamented with several handsome cuts, is now before the public. The Child’s Cabinet is put at the low price of fifty cents for twelve numbers, published in the course of the year. I hope this attempt to improve young children will be successful.” [“Child’s Cabinet”]

source of information: OCLC; “Child’s Cabinet”


• “Child’s Cabinet.” The Religious Intelligencer 16 (28 Jan 1832); p. 553.

Sabbath School Magazine ; 1832

published: Steubenville; printed by James E. Wilson

frequency: bimonthly

description: Page size, 8.5″ h

• Religious focus

source of information: OCLC; ULS

The Rose Bud ; March 1832-after Feb 1834?

cover/masthead: 1832

published: Lowell, Massachusetts: O. Sheple; publisher at Central Street, 1832.

frequency: monthly

description: 1832: 18 pp; page size untrimmed, 6.75″ h x 3.5″ w • For Sunday schools

relevant quote: Carolyn Gilman, editor of the Rose Bud (1832-1839), was surprised to find that another periodical shared that name: “Having been often complimented on the pretty and novel name of our newspaper, we were startled, and must confess, somewhat chagrined, when a friend, last week, brought us a monthly publication from Lowell, (Mass.) called ‘The Rose Bud,’ with a vignette somewhat resembling our own, which we find has been in existence since last March. It is got up with great neatness, and seems happily designed for Sunday Schools.” [Rose Bud; p. 30] As a result, Gilman changed the name of her periodical to Southern Rose Bud.

source of information: May 1832 issue; OCLC; NUC; Rose Bud

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• “Singular Coincidence.” Rose Bud. 1 (20 Oct 1832); p. 30. online

Youth’s Companion, and Weekly Family Visitor ; 1 April 1832-23 March 1833 • Youth’s Companion and Family Visitor ; 30 March 1833-22 March 1834

published: New York, New York: James Van Valkenburgh, 1 April 1832-1833; published at School Book Depository, Broadway.

• New York, New York: Burnett & Smith, 1833-22 March 1834.

frequency: weekly

description: 4 pp.; folio; page size, 9.25″ h; price, $1/ year.

absorbed by: New York Weekly Messenger ; 1832-13 July 1836 (for adults)

source of information: Lyon; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 12, 17, 94-97.

The Youth’s Temperance Lecturer ; July 1832-1833?

edited by: William Goodell

published: New York, New York

frequency: monthly

description: 36 pp.; prices: July 1832, 50¢/ year; Oct 1832, 75¢/ year

• Circulation, 800 [“Temperance Periodicals”]

relevant quotes:

• About the magazine: “It contains familiar lectures, narratives, anecdotes, &c., illustrating the pernicious effects of ardent spirits; and is designed to inculcate upon the minds of children and youth the principles of temperance and general morality. Mr. Goodell is editor of the Genius of Temperance; a nervous and practical writer, whose efforts have long been wisely directed to promote the welfare of his fellow men. The ‘Lecturer’ costs but a mere trifle, and should be within the reach of every child.crd [“New Publications”]

• A description of the periodical appeared in a rival publication: “Since commencing our little work, we have become acquainted with two periodicals of a design very similar to our own. The first is a small monthly magazine, printed in New-York, and entitled The Youth’s Temperance Lecturer. The leading object of the Editor seems to be, to fortify his readers against acquiring habits of intemperance. But his design embraces other kindred objects, and presents a very pleasing Miscellany of original matter, and choice extracts.” [Rose Bud; pp. 26-27]

source of information: notices, etc., below

available: Pieces from the Lecturer were reprinted in several periodicals. Episcopal Recorder: “The Drunken Mother and Her Children” [8 Dec 1832; p. 144] • Youth’s Companion: “Lecture on Temperance” [28 Nov 1832; p. 111]; “Pride” [5 Dec 1832; p. 114]; “Talking Too Much” [5 Dec 1832; p. 115]; “Robert Fulton” [26 Dec 1832; p. 125]; “Lecture on Temperance” [13 Feb 1833; p. 155]; “Lecture on Temperance” [22 May 1833; p. 4]; “Obedience” [3 July 1833; p. 27]; “Shaking the Table Cloth” [3 July 1833; p. 2] • Christian Secretary: “The Log School House” [5 Jan 1833; p. 204] • The Farmers’ Cabinet [Amherst, New Hampshire]: “Lecture on Temperance” [15 Feb 1833; p. 1]

• Selected reprinted pieces are online


• “Youth’s Temperance Lecturer.” Essex Gazette (Haverhill, Massachusetts) 6 (14 July 1832); p. 2.

• “New Publications.” The Volunteer 2 (Aug 1832); p. 32. []

• “Juvenile Periodicals.” Rose Bud. 1 (13 Oct 1832); pp. 26-27. online

• “Temperance Periodicals in the United States.” The American Quarterly Temperance Magazine (Feb 1833); p. 89.

Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcohol Problem, ed. Ernest Hurst Cherrington. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Publishing Co., 1929; vol 3, p. 1118.

Rose Bud, or Youth’s Gazette ; 11 Aug, 2 Sept, 15 Sept 1832-24 Aug 1833 • Southern Rose Bud ; 31 Aug 1833-22 Aug 1835 • The Southern Rose ; Sept 1835-17 Aug 1839

cover/masthead: 11 Aug, 2 Sept, 15 Sept 1832-24 Aug 1833 | 31 Aug 1833 | 7 Sept-26 Oct 1833 | 2 Nov 1833-23 Aug 1834 | 30 Aug 1834-22 Aug 1835

edited by: Caroline H. Gilman

published: Charleston, South Carolina: J. S. Burges, 11 Aug 1832; at 44 Queen St.

• Charleston, South Carolina: William Estill, 2 Sept 1832-23 Feb 1833; at 30 Broad St.

• Charleston, South Carolina: James S. Burges, 5 Oct 1833-1835; at 183 King St.

• Charleston, South Carolina: E. J. Van Brunt, 1835-1836.

• Charleston, South Carolina: Burges & Honour, 1836.

• Charleston, South Carolina: J. S. Burges, 1836-?.

• Charleston, South Carolina: B. B. Hussey, 1838-1839.

frequency: 15 Sept 1832-17 Aug 1835: weekly: Saturday

description: 1832-22 Aug 1835: 4 pp.; quarto; price, $1/ year

• Sept 1835-17 Aug 1839: 16 pp.; $2/ year

• As Southern Rose, the magazine was intended for adults.

relevant information: More than one Southern editor nostalgically evoked the memory of the Rose Bud when promoting—or trying to promote—Southern periodicals; see, for example, “The Monthly Rose.” Edgefield Advertiser [Edgefield, South Carolina] 12 March 1845; p. 2; “The Portfolio.” Yorkville Enquirer [York, South Carolina] 17 May 1861; p. 4.

relevant quotes:

• An early advertisement highlighted the growing sectionalism in the 1830s U. S.: “It seems desirable, that while Southern youth are eagerly perusing the productions, and studying the manners of other sections of the United States, there should be some medium, by which to reciprocate corresponding information. It is truly important that the literature of our country should be generally circulated, even from childhood, as it is one of those green spots where there may be rivalry without contention. The Editor of the Rose Bud asks from parents and guardians throughout the Union their cooperation in this design.” [“Proposals for the Publication of the Rose Bud, or Youth’s Gazette”]

• One local editor had high expectations of the Rose Bud (and of its own readers’ abilities): “The Rose Bud, or Youth’s Gazette.—This is the title of a neat Hebdomodal, the conductor of which, Mrs. Gilman, of this city, is about to employ her acquirements for the instruction of youth, in a form, which, if more generally adopted by Ladies of taste and intelligence, would go far to purify the periodical Press of much of its present grossness and indelicacy. Mrs. Gilman will exclude every thing controversial, of a political or religious nature, from the pages of her Miscellany.” [Southern Patriot 13 Aug 1832]

• The first issues were delayed: “Providential circumstances, which have delayed the publication of the first sheet of the Rose Bud, will also prevent the successive numbers from appearing until later in the season.” [1 (11 Aug 1832); p. 4] There was a three-week gap between issue one and issue two; issue three was published two weeks after issue two.

• Introduction: “I propose to publish the Rose Bud every Saturday. It will contain original prose and poetry, notices of new books and toys, extracts from children’s works that are not common, and many other interesting things which cannot be detailed here.” [1 (11 Aug 1832); p. 1]

• Amused at the publication of another periodical named “Rose Bud,” Gilman explained the name’s genesis: “One evening in July last, a family circle were conversing together, when one of the children exclaimed, ‘Mother, how pretty it would be to have a paper, in which children could write.’ ‘So it would. What would be a suitable name?’ The Star, the Gem, and many others were suggested and declined, until the mother said, ‘What do you think of the Rose Bud, with this motto from Scott, “The Rose is fairest, when ’tis budding new”? At least it will be perfectly original.’ A wiser head added ‘The Youth’s Gazette’ to the title, and the manuscript of Number One was in the publisher’s hand the following week.” [“Singular Coincidence.” 1 (20 Oct 1832); p. 30]

• Gilman tried different ways of distributing the periodical: “In consequence of the frequent irregularities and embarrassments, arising from the present system of Carriers, the Editor of the Rose Bud has been enabled, by the kindness of several friends, to establish Depositories in various places, where it will in future be left, and where subscribers may obtain their papers by sending for them at an early hour on Saturday morning. The mode of distributing by Carriers will be dispensed with. … The different Wards of the City are formed by the intersection of Queen and Meeting streets. Subscribers are particularly requested to send to Depositories in their own Ward.” Seven depositories were listed: James M. Bee, Tradd St. (ward 1); E. Thayer’s bookstore, Broad St. (ward 2); Burges’ Printing Office, Queen St. (ward 3); Hussey’s bookstore, King St. (ward 4); “Mrs. Anthony’s, near the Foot Bridge” (Cannonborough); William Lee (Mazyekborough); Sawyer’s English Good Store, King St. (“other places on the Neck”). [1 (9 March 1833); p. 111]

• About the title change for volume 2: “Since the publication of the Rose Bud, papers of a similar character have increased so rapidly at the North, as to induce the Editor to change its title. The Southern Rose Bud, will be issued on the 31st of August, in an enlarged form, with improved paper, and will be adapted in many points to mature readers, though not relinquishing the juvenile department. The Editor again renews her pledge, to shut out from its pages all allusions to political or religious controversy.” [“Prospectus of the Southern Rose Bud.” 1 (17 Aug 1833); p. 204]

• A new vignette was created for volume 2, though it was late in arriving: “We regret, that our new vignette has not arrived from New-York.” [2 (31 Aug 1833); p. 3]

• After the issue for 16 Aug 1834, the Rose Bud ceased to be a children’s periodical: “The Southern Rose Bud, Vol. III. will be issued every two weeks on a double sheet, comprising more matter than has formerly been contained in two single ones. … It is proposed to adapt it to family reading, and though a department will still be left to Juvenile subscribers, the taste of young gentlemen and ladies of maturer years will be carefully studied.” [2 (16 Aug 1834); p. 203]

• The editor says farewell: “With a thousand good wishes, and in perfectly happy humor towards her large circle of subscribers, the Editor bids them, in this number, an affectionate farewell. She ceases from her pleasant toils, not in consequence of any special discouragement,—for her Publisher is desirous of continuing the Periodical, and assures her that, by very slight exertions, a generous remuneration might be obtained for the expenses and labors incident to the establishment; but, as she approached her office seven years ago through an impulse perfectly voluntary, so she retires from it now with the same unimpaired feeling of liberty. Should she continue farther in the career of literature, … she would prefer some mode of publication less exacting than the rigorous punctuality of a periodical work. Yet nothing but delightful reminiscences will ever be connected in her mind with the thought of her juvenile Rose-Bud, and more expanded Rose, nor any feeling less warm than gratitude be ever entertained for those, whose approbation, or patronage, or literary assistance fostered the flower at every period of its growth, and rendered the Editor’s occupation at once her pleasure and her pride.” [7 (17 Aug 1839); p. 416]

• In 1884, 90-year-old Carolyn Gilman credited the Rose Bud as one of the first American works published for children, in response to the question, “Who were the first writers of children’s literature in this country … ?” [M. E. G. “The Free Parliament”] Unfortunately, her answer not only includes incorrect dates (late 1830s) for the periodicals she mentions, but inaccurately explains that “nothing before these … journals was printed in this country for children especially.” [Eliza W. Lippitt. “The Free Parliament”]

source of information: APS II reel 688; AAS catalog; Lyon; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 2

• APS II (1800-1850), reel 688



• notice. The Southern Patriot [Charleston, South Carolina] 28 (13 Aug 1832); p. 2.

• notice. Ladies’ Magazine 5 (Sept 1832); pp. 427-428. online

• “The Rose Bud.” Christian Register 11 (8 Sept 1832); pp. 142-143.

• “Proposals for the Publication of the Rose Bud, or Youth’s Gazette.” Weekly Raleigh Register [Raleigh, North Carolina] 26 Oct 1832; p. 4.

• poem about the Rose Bud. The Charleston Mercury [Charleston, South Carolina] 5 Aug 1833; p. 2.

• notice. The Rural Repository Aug 31, 1833; p. 55. online

• “The Southern Rose Bud.” Ladies’ Magazine 7 (July 1834); pp. 335-336.

• “The Rose-bud.” The New-York Mirror 12 (8 Nov 1834); p. 149. online

• notice. New-York Mirror 13 (23 Jan 1836); p. 239. online

• “The Southern Rose.” American Annals of Education, (April 1837); p. 190. online

• M. E. G. “The Free Parliament” question 684. The Critic and Good Literature 12 May 1884; p. 239.

• Eliza W. Lippitt. “The Free Parliament.” answer to question 684. The Critic 16 Aug 1884; p. 84.

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston, Massachusetts: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 56.

• William Stanley Hoole. A Check-list and Finding-list of Charleston Periodicals, 1732-1864. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1936; pp. 34-35.

• William Stanley Hoole. “The Gilmans and The Southern Rose.” The North Carolina Historical Review 11 (April 1834); pp. 116-128.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 12, 17, 20, 23, 98-104.

• Janie M. Smith, “ ‘Rose Bud,’ a Magazine for Children.” The Horn Book Magazine. 19 (Jan 1943); pp. 15-20.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Jan Bakker. “Caroline Gilman and the Issue of Slavery in the Rose Magazines, 1832-1839.” Southern Studies, 24 (1985); pp. 273-283.

• Gillian Avery. Behold the Child: American Children and Their Books, 1621-1922. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994; p. 85.

• Gale L. Kenny. “Mastering Childhood: Paternalism, Slavery, and the Southern Domestic in Caroline Howard Gilman’s Antebellum Children’s Literature.” Southern Quarterly 44 (Fall 2006); pp. 65-87.

• Anna Luker Gilding. “Preserving Sentiments: American Women’s Magazines of the 1830s and the Networks of Antebellum Print Culture.” American Periodicals 23 (2013); pp. 156-171.

Youth’s Literary Gazette ; 1 Dec 1832-22 Nov 1833

cover/masthead: sample 1 Dec 1832 | 1 Dec 1832-22 Nov 1833

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Thomas T. Ash; 1832-1833, publisher at 148 Chesnut St.

• Also published in Baltimore, Maryland, & New York, New York.

frequency: weekly: Saturday; 1 vol/ year

description: 4 pp.; quarto; page size untrimmed, 11″ h x 9″ w; price, $1/ year • 52 issues • Newspaper format

relevant information: The National Gazette printed contents for issue one [1 Dec 1832]; issue two [8 Dec 1832]; issue seven [12 Jan 1833]; issue nine [26 Jan 1833].

• The Gazette was intended for “youths from five to fifteen years.” [We have received the first two numbers]

• All the issues bound into one volume were available to purchase years later. [Pittsburgh Gazette 23 May 1836]

relevant quotes:

• Ash published a sample issue without an illustrated masthead, apparently to gauge interest: “It is requested that both Parents and Children will read it, and if they approve, send in their names … as it is important for us to know the opinion of the subject soon.” [sample issue (1 Dec 1832); p. 4; AASHistPer]

• The Gazette made its intentions clear to young readers and to the adults subscribing for them. To parents: “Among the numerous cheap publications of the day, none has been offered to that numerous class of society who most need instruction and amusement; and with your approval and assistance, the publisher of ‘The Youth’s Literary Gazette,’ proposes to furnish a year’s reading at the ordinary cost of two small volumes. … The Gazette will contain as much good, useful, and interesting matter as would form twelve of the usual sized volumes for children. The articles will be adapted to all ages, from 5 to 15 years. … Its pages will be devoted to— 1. Travels and Voyages. 2. Familiar Tales and Narratives. 3. Dialogues on Scientific Subjects. 4. Biography and Natural History. 5. Notices of all new Works for Children. 6. Interesting Historical Anecdotes. 7. Charades, Conundrums, and Puzzles.” [“Address.” 1 (Dec 1832); p. 1] A description of the format appeared on the last page of the specimen issue, above an extensive collection of newspaper notices and a detailed advertisement of globes, orreries, chemistry sets, and “philosophical apparatus” sold by the publisher: “There will be no light or trifling matter admitted in its pages. The 1st and 2d pages will always contain short, but good moral stories …. The 3d and 4th pages will be devoted to scientific subjects, treated in a simple, plain style, as shall be easily understood by every child; for ornaments, two or three good wood engravings will be in every No. Natural History, Astronomy, Geometry, and such subjects, will be freely illustrated.” [1 (1 Dec 1832): unnumbered back page]

• The editor reminded “our young friends” that they were to take more than entertainment from the paper: “It is for you this miniature Newspaper has been prepared, and to you we look for encouragement to continue it. You are all fond of anecdotes … your paper will contain a variety, and we hope you will try to remember them, endeavour to understand what you read, and imitate the good examples that are recorded …. Remember, that in this land of liberty, every child is the maker of his own fortune; that education and industry furnish a sure passport to good society; that good conduct and information will make you respected by all.” [“Address.” 1 (1 Dec 1832); p. 1]

• Like most periodicals of the time, the Gazette reprinted works from rivals: “[A]rrangements have been made in London for the early receipt of about fifteen Periodicals for children, and the very best of their contents will be given in the Gazette.” [“Address.” 1 (Dec 1832); p. 1]

• As was customary, issues were sent to other periodicals, whose notices would serve as advertisements, thus, “We acknowledge the favour of the ‘Ladies’ Mirror,’ from Southbridge, Mass. and the ‘Youth’s Literary Gazette,’ from Philadelphia, both, charming periodicals.” [Rose Bud. 1 (22 Dec 1832); p. 67] The Rose Bud printed another notice six months later, lauding the Gazette and two other periodicals which were “conducted with great spirit, and form a new and interesting era in Juvenile Literature.” [Rose Bud. 1 (15 June 1833); p. 167]

• The paper’s end was announced in Oct 1833. [1 (12 Oct 1833); p. 184; in Lyon, p. 108].

• The Southern Rose Bud eulogized its rival: “The publishers of the ‘Youth’s Literary Gazette,’ in Philadelphia, give notice, that they will transfer their subscription list to the publishers of ‘Parley’s Magazine,’ in consequence of the increased number of publications of the same kind. We have received the series of the ‘Youth’s Literary Gazette,’ with great interest. Its invariable tendency has been to improve and please the youthful mind.” [notice. Southern Rose Bud. 2 (19 Oct 1833); p. 31]

• Announcing the end: “We have now published the Youth’s Literary Gazette nearly one year, and find, owing to the numerous publications of the same kind, it is impossible for them all to succeed. We shall therefore transfer our subscription list to the publishers of PETER PARLEY’S MAGAZINE, at the close of the present volume of the Gazette, under the full belief that such a change would entirely meet the approbation of our subscribers—the name of Parley has become familiar to almost every child in America, and his magazine is now the most popular Juvenile work in the country.” [“To our Patrons.” 1 (15 Nov 1833); p. 204]

absorbed by: Parley’s Magazine ; 1833-1844

source of information: 1 Dec 1832 issue; Lyon; AASHistPer; OCLC; NUC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• “The Youth’s Gazette.” The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 1 Dec 1832; p. 2. Also, 4 Dec 1832; p. 3.

• notice. The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 8 Dec 1832; p. 2.

• “The Youth’s Gazette.” The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 8 Dec 1832; p. 3.

• We have received the first two numbers. Daily Lancaster Examiner [Lancaster, Pennsylvania] 13 Dec 1832; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Literary Gazette.” Northen Pennsylvania [Dundaff, Pennsylvania] 14 Dec 1832; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Literary Gazette.” The Rural Repository 9 (15 Dec 1832); p. 119.

• notice. Rose Bud. 1 (22 Dec 1832); p. 67. Also in Christian Register 11 (29 Dec 1832); p. 207.

• “Youth’s Literary Gazette.” Daily Lancaster Examiner [Lancaster, Pennsylvania] 27 Dec 1832; p. 1.

• “Youth’s Literary Gazette.” The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsyllvania] 12 Jan 1833; p. 2.

• “The Youth’s Literary Gazette, No. 9.” The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 26 Jan 1833; p. 2.

• “Literary Intelligence.” The North American Magazine 1 (March 1833); p. 319-320.

• “Youth’s Literary Gazette.” The Pittsburgh Gazette [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] 23 May 1836; p. 2.

• “Items for Youth.” Rose Bud. 1 (15 June 1833); p. 167. online

• notice. Southern Rose Bud. 2 (19 Oct 1833); p. 31. online

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 12, 21-22, 23, 105-108.

Western Sabbath School Repository, and Friend of Youth ; 1833

edited by: Thomas T. Skillman

published: Lexington, Kentucky

frequency: monthly

description: 32 pp.; 50¢/ year

• Religious focus

relevant information: proposed; probably not published

• Intended for Sabbath Schools: “[D]esigned specially for the benefit of the scholars and teachers of the Sabbath Schools in the Southern and Western parts of our country. … Although several such publications as [Skillman] designs to issue, are established at the East, yet they do not obtain any thing like a general circulation in this part of the country.” [Proposal]

source of information: Western Luminary


• proposal. Western Luminary 9 (30 Jan 1833); p. 3.

The Sabbath School Visiter ; 1833-Dec 1843

cover/masthead: 1837

edited by: Asa Bullard

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Sunday School Society.

frequency: monthly


• 1834: price, 50¢/ year • 1835-1837: 24 pp.; page size, 7″ h x 4.25″ w; price, 50¢/ year

• 1837: price, 50¢/ year, payable in advance

• 1838: 36 pp.; duodecimo; price, $1/ year in advance

• 1839: 24 pp.; price, 50¢/ year

• 1843: 24 pp.; page size, 7″ h x 4.25″ w.

• Circulation: 1837, 9,000

• In 1837, the Visiter had agents in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Illinois, Ohio, South Carolina, & Louisiana

• Religious focus

relevant quotes:

• The Visiter was intended for adults and for children, which made for an awkward mix: “The Managers of the Mass. S. S. Society … [b]elieving that its influence, so far as now exerted, through The Sabbath School Visiter, is greatly abridged by the attempt to adapt that periodical to the wants of both children and adults, … propose to publish … TWO periodicals, to be devoted, one to each of these classes respectively.” [“Periodicals of the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society.” 11 (Oct 1843); p. 239]

• On the shift from one to two periodicals: “[A] new series of this periodical is to be commenced, the next month, under the title of The Congregational Visiter, for parents, church-members and Sabbath school teachers …. It is to be enlarged t the usual size of the dollar periodicals of the day, while its terms remain the same as now,—FIFTY CENTS a year. To meet the wants of the young, a weekly paper, entitled The Well-Spring, is to be published.” [“To Our Readers.” 11 (Dec 1843); p. 266]

continued by: Congregational Visiter ; 1844-1848 (for adults) • The Well-spring • The Wellspring for Young People • The Well-spring and Missionary Echoes • The Wellspring (5 Jan 1844-1928)

source of information: 1835-1837, 1843 bound vols; Aug 1837 issue; Children’s Magazine; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3


• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 11 (15 Feb 1834); p. 183.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 6 (4 April 1835); p. 55.

• “Sabbath School Visiter.” The Pittsfield Sun [Pittsfield, Massachusetts] 15 Dec 1836; p. 3.

• “Boston Anniversaries.” New York Evangelist 8 (10 June 1837); p. 1.

• H. “Sabbath School Visiter.” Boston Reccorder 23 (9 Feb 1838); p. 23.

The Children’s Magazine 10 (July 1838): inside back cover (cover page 3)

• A. Bullard. “The Sabbath School Visiter.” The Pittsfield Sun [Pittsfield, Massachusetts] 27 Dec 1838; p. 3.

• “The Sabbath School Visiter.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 18 Dec 1839; p. 2.

• advertisement. The St. Johnsbury Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] 6 July 1841; p. 3.

• advertisement with contents for Nov 1842. Christian Observer 21 (11 Nov 1842); p. 179.

• “Sabbath School Visiter for 1843.” The St. Johnsbury Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] 13 Feb 1843; p. 2.

• “Periodicals of the Mass. Sabbath School Society.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 11 Oct 1843; p. 3.

Youth’s Companion ; 1833

published: Rochester, New York; printed at the office of “The Gem”

frequency: weekly

description: Issue 2 is 27 April 1833

source of information: OCLC

The Youth’s Miscellany ; 27 Feb-after May 1833

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Miller & Chance; publisher at 29 South 2nd St.

frequency: biweekly

description: Price, 50¢/ year

• Vol 1 #7 = May 1833

relevant quote:

• The prospectus promised that readers would receive an education both moral and intellectual: “Our country is already overloaded with papers of different kinds; some are adapted to the taste of the politician, others to the merchant, and a large number to literature; but scarcely one for young people.—There is no class of society to whom knowledge is more desirable than to that usually denominated scholars; the minds of children must be employed. A paper calculated to lead the young from all vicious habits and to inculcate a fondness for study is mch desired—we shall endeavor to make the Youth’s Miscellany such an one; our pages will generally be devoted to Natural History, Biographies of celebrated persons, Moral and Instructive Tales, Sketches of Country, Manners and Customs of Nations, Poetry, Anecdotes, Conundrums, Enigmas, Puzzles, &c. Its columns will contain no articles that can in any way injure the morals of our readers—particular care will be taken to foster the fruits of native talents; our pages are therefore open for all well written pieces of composition on interesting subjects. Several writers of merit will contribute their productions for the edification of our patrons. Each number will contain one or more cuts, illustrative of different subjects.” [“Prospectus”]

• Even the writer of the notice of the sample issue (published in two separate periodicals) appears to have realized that the Miscellany was fairly generic: “Its columns are to be devoted to brief and lucid notices of natural history, biographies of celebrated persons, moral and instructive tales, sketches of the manners and customs of nations, &c. We heartily commend it to the patronage of the young and studious reader.” [“The Youth’s Miscellany” (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)]

source of information: OCLC; notices, etc., below


• “The Youth’s Miscellany.” National Gazette and Literary Register [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 28 Feb 1833; p. 2. Also, “The Youth’s Miscellany.” The Philadelphia Album and Ladies’ Literary Portfolio 7 (2 March 1833); p. 69.

• “The Youth’s Miscellany.” Wyoming Republican and Herald [Kingston, Pennsylvania] 20 March 1833; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Miscellany.” Observer [Erie, Pennsylvania] 23 March 1833; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Miscellany.” National Gazette and Literary Register [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 23 March 1833; p. 2.

• “Prospectus of the Youth’s Miscellany.” Gettysburg Compiler [Gettysburg, Pennsylvania] 26 March 1833; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Miscellany.” Richmond Weekly Palladium [Richmond, Indiana] 30 March 1833; p. 2.

• “Youth’s Miscellany.” Ohio State Journal [Columbus, Ohio] 2 (6 April 1833); p. 3.

• notice. The Philadelphia Album and Ladies’ Literary Portfolio 7 (6 April 1833); p. 109.

• “The Youth’s Miscellany.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 10 April 1833; p. 2.

Parley’s Magazine ; 16 March 1833-1844

cover/masthead: early 1833 | Sept 1833 | 1834 | Jan 1835 | 20 June 1835 | 12 Sept 1835 | 10 Oct 1835 | 1836 | 1841, 1844

edited by: 1833, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • 1833-1837, William Andrus Alcott • 1838-1844, Charles S. Francis?

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Lilly, Wait & Co., 1833.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Samuel Colman, 1834-1835.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Joseph H. Francis, 1835-1844; New York, New York: Charles S. Francis, 1835-1844.

frequency: 16 March 1833-1835: biweekly: Saturday; 1 vol/ year; also available in quarterly parts, “in volumes of about 100 pages, very neatly put up with strong cloth backs” [“About Volume Fourth of Parley’s Magazine, for the Year 1836.” 3 (1835); p. 61] • Jan 1836-1844: monthly; first day of month; 1 vol/ year; also available in quarterly parts

description: March 1833-1835: 16 pp.; page size untrimmed, 7.25″ h; 5.5″ w; price, $1/ year • Jan 1836-1844: 32 pp.; page size untrimmed, 7.25″ h; 5.5″ w; price $1/year: “The reasons for this change [to 32 pages] are numerous. One is that we have more room for variety in a number of 32 pages than in one of 16; we shall also get rid of the necessity of continuing long articles through several numbers. Another reason for change is, to diminish, as much as possible, the risk of failures in sending by mail and otherwise; as we shall now send at once what used to go at two different times; and at only half the former risk.” [“Notice.” 3 (1835); p. 94]

• Circulation (from magazine): 30 March 1833, 10,000; 1833, 12,000; 15 March 1834, 20,000; Jan 1838, 6,000.

• From the beginning, the magazine was stereotyped; it was reprinted several times, with changes made in text and sometimes in illustrations. The magazine was republished twice in the 1850s by Edward H. Fletcher: in 1854 as The Youth’s Galaxy (Jan-June 1853) and in 1857 as “Republication of Parley’s Magazine, with original matter.”

relevant information:

• Starting in Jan 1835, the magazine began its new volume with the Jan issue; as a result, some issues in 1835 were double: “It is intended to begin and end every volume, hereafter, with the beginning and end of the year; and it was with this view that the publisher, during the present year, has sometimes issued two numbers stitched together like one ….” [“About Volume Fourth of Parley’s Magazine, for the Year 1836.” 3 (1835); p. 61]

relevant quotes:

• On the founding: “The publication of Parley’s Magazine was commenced by Lilly, Wait & Co. of Boston, in 1833. Mr. Colman, the active agent and proprietor of the work, obtained permission of ‘Peter Parley’  … to use his title to this magazine, who was to be remunerated accordingly. The three or four first numbers, we believe, were supervised by this old gentleman, but it was in the charge of a sub-editor the remainder of the year. Mr. Colman now found that the work could be made more acceptable to its readers by different management, and he proposed to its name-giver a certain specified sum to relinquish it entirely to the publishers; which offer was embraced, and Dr. Alcott took charge of the editorial department. … [W]e cannot help quoting for the information of our little readers part of a letter written by ‘Peter Parley’ to the projectors of the work when they asked him for his name. ‘I am very glad to hear that you are about to publish a little magazine for children. I cannot undertake to become its editor, as you desire, for my quill is nearly worn to the stump … ’ He accordingly did not furnish many articles for the work …. The above statement, in regard to the origin and progress of our magazine, was thought necessary because many persons, not subscribers, thinking ‘Peter Parley’ to be the editor, might be deterred from subscribing. We are happy to be enabled to state that the name is legitimate, was bought of its owner at a high price, and can be sustained as usual with the same means it has always enjoyed.” [Parley’s Magazine. Dec 1841; p. 392; in Dechert] Goodrich’s blunt reply appeared in several magazines and reminded readers that he was “the veritable Peter Parley.”

• Prospectus: “The design of the publishers, in this Magazine, is to offer to the public an entertaining work for children and youth; one that may become with them a favorite; one that will please and instruct them …. It will consist chiefly of matters of fact, and the editors will endeavor to present truth and knowledge in a guise attractive to the youthful mind, as that in which fiction has generally been arrayed. The title of the work is chosen, as an indication of what it is intended shall be its character. The style which the author of Peter Parley’s Tales has chosen as a vehicle of instruction for youth, will be adopted in its pages, and Peter Parley, in his proper character of story teller and traveller, will often appear as a contributor. The work will comprise pieces adapted to all stages of the youthful faculties from childhood upwards. It may thus pass from hand to hand in the family circle ….” [Prospectus. 1 (16 March 1833)]

• One critic had good things to say about the magazine, but took issue with the fact that Christian principles were not a subject: “We have seen the first Number of a child’s newspaper, published in Boston, under this title [of Parley’s Magazine], and edited by the author of numerous works for the young, who has written under the assumed name of Peter Parley. It is ornamented with pretty good wood cuts, and contains a variety of subjects, designed both to please and instruct. In the table of contents, wee find every necessary department expressly provided for, except that of religious instruction and training. A similar deficiency we have heard objected to in the author’s previous publications. We trust it may be supplied; for it would be preposterous to undertake to educate a child to any good purpose without a daily and hourly resort to the principles of the Christian religion. Even the French system of public instruction has now been established upon this foundation.” [“Parley’s Magazine.” Vermont Telegraph]

• In 1834, Caroline Gilman announced that Parley’s had absorbed the Juvenile Rambler and that William Alcott had a new job as editor: “The able Editor of this little paper has transferred his talents to ‘Parley’s Magazine,’ which will lend that excellent work an additional value. ‘If I were not Alexander, I should like to be Diogenes.’ If we were not the Southern Rose Bud, we should like to be Parley’s Magazine.” [“The Juvenile Rambler”]

• The American Annals of Education pointed out where the Rambler failed and Parley’s succeeded: “[The Rambler’s] price and subscription list did not authorise a sufficient amount of illustrations. The Parley Magazine, with its splendid illustrations, only needed a change in its character, and the Rambler has been united with it, to accomplish the great object more effectually. The plan proposed for the future volumes will render it a valuable publication to every family; and the engagement of the late Editor of the Rambler to assist in it, will, we trust, secure its execution.” [“Parley’s Magazine”]

• A writer for the American Annals of Education felt that William Alcott improved the magazine: “We have watched with deep interest, the People’s Magazine and Parley’s Magazine …. The plan was well conceived, and much taste was displayed in the selections and embellishments of the first volume. But we were disappointed in some respects. Both were better adapted to the parlor, than to the people—perhaps with good policy, so far as pecuniary profit was concerned, but certainly at the expense of the great objects for which we hoped. there was a want of unity and character also, which was unfortunate, and articles crept into them, which were but ill-assorted with scripture stories and lessons of excellence. During the last year, they have been placed under the care of a new edditor, and their character is, in our opinion, much improved. They display, indeed, less of elegant taste, but far more of the spirit of doing good—less of beauty and finish in the execution, but far more of utility,—and above all, a decided and practical character, and a high tone of moral feeling. They have thus been rendered far more suitable to the people and to their children—while they will instruct and amuse the well informed. We regret that the engravings are so frequently injured in stereotyping; and we have more than once wished that Tom Starboard would take his place with Sinbad the Sailor; but we cordially wish success to these useful and improving works.” [“Popular Periodicals”]

• William Alcott also felt he improved the magazine: writing in 1844, he could recommend to young readers only the first five volumes of Parley’s, having edited four of those volumes himself: “Parley’s Magazine, once a good thing for the young, is so much degenerated, that as a whole, I cannot commend it to your notice.” [p. 115] In a footnote, he made his recommendation: “I would particularly recommend the first five volumes of Parley’s Magazine, bound; four of which I edited myself.” [p. 116]

• In 1836, the number of pages in each issue doubled: “In the progress of the last three years, I have paid you between seventy and eighty of these visits. Every other Saturday, hot or cold, rain, snow, or sunshine, summer or winter, sick or well, I have put on my best dress, and hastened to meet your smiling faces, to present you with sixteen pages of valuable reading, such as I had been a whole fortnight in collecting. Now, though I love your society as well as I did three years ago, and have a gread deal better, and though I have as many stories to tell you as I could relate in twenty years more, yet I have concluded to alter, for this year, the time of making my visits. Instead of coming every other Saturday, you may now look for me only about half as often; that is, at the beginning of every month. … If I do not come to see you as often as formerly, I shall stay twice as long when I do come ….” [“New Year’s Address.” 4 (Jan 1836); p. 1]

• William Alcott, who went from editing the Juvenile Rambler to editing Parley’s when it absorbed the Rambler, found editing less than profitable: “We were employed by the philanthropic proprietor of the ‘Juvenile Rambler,’ to edit that paper for him about two years, till it was merged in Parley’s Magazine. Subsequently we edited Parley’s Magazine four years—we will not say with what success—we leave that to others. We will only say that had we sailed under the flag of a sect or party, and had other people been as willing as ourselves to ‘work for nothing and keep themselves,’ we have no doubt both works would have been better supported than they were; and we might have been willing longer to bear the burden of editing the latter.” [“Youth’s Penny Paper”; p. 336]

Parley’s is listed as a juvenile paper refusing to participate in an exchange with Youth’s Cabinet in 1839.

absorbed: Juvenile Rambler (also Classical Journal and Scholar’s Review; Juvenile Rambler, or, Family and School Journal); 4 Jan 1832-26 Dec 1833 • Youth’s Literary Gazette ; 1 Dec 1832-Oct 1833

merged with: Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

source of information: 1833-1844 scattered issues & bound volumes; Eastern Magazine; Dechert; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3

• APS II (1800-1850), reels 669-670 (microfilm was made from copies edited for reprinting)

excerpts online


• notices. Boston Morning Post. 3 (1 Feb 1833); p. 3. 3 (6 March 1833); p. 4. 3 (8 March 1833); p. 4.

• review. The Ladies’ Magazine, and Literary Gazette. 6 (April 1833); p. 187. online

• “Parley’s Magazine.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 16 April 1833; p. 3.

• “Items for Youth.” Rose Bud 1 (15 June 1833); p. 167. online

• review. The Rural Repository 10 (31 Aug 1833); p. 55. online

• review. The Ladies’ Magazine, and Literary Gazette. 6 (Aug 1833); p. 376. online

• “Parley’s Magazine.” American Annals of Education. 4 (Feb 1834); p. 100. online

• “Parley’s Magazine.” The Emancipator [New York, New York] 2 (18 Feb 1834); p. 4.

• “The Juvenile Rambler.” Southern Rose Bud. 2 (22 Feb 1834); p. 103. online

• “Popular Periodicals.” American Annals of Education. (Jan 1835); pp. 32-34. online

• review. Eastern Magazine 1 (July 1835); p. 64. online

• review. American Annals of Education 7 (Feb 1837); p. 96. online

• notice. The Knickerbocker 9 (Jan 1837); p. 100. online

• “The Youth’s Penny Paper.” American Annals of Education 8 (July 1838); pp. 335-336. online

• notice. Brother Jonathan 1 (April 9, 1842); p. 409. online

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844; pp. 115-116. [google books]

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 429. [google books]

• Mabel F. Altstetter. “Early American Magazines for Children.” Peabody Journal of Education 19 (Nov 1941); p. 132.

• Frank Luther Mott. “Parley’s Magazine,” in A History of American Magazines: vol 1, 1841-1850. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938. pp. 622-623.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 22-23, 25, 109-115, 145, 149, 153, 164, 374.

• John B. Crume. “Children’s Magazines, 1826-1857.” Journal of Popular Culture 7 (1973); pp. 698-706.

• Jill Delano Sweiger. “Conceptions of Children in American Juvenile Periodicals: 1830-1870.” PhD diss. Rutgers University, 1977.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Juvenile Watchman ; 8 March, 26 April-3 May, 17 May 1833-1835

edited by: William Nichols

published: Boston, Massachusetts: William Nichols, at the office of the Christian Watchman; publisher at 127 Washington St., 8 March 1833-25 Feb 1834; publisher at “Wilson’s Lane, over Mechanics’ Reading Room, a few doors from State Street, and near the rear of the United States Branch Bank,” March 1834-1835

frequency: weekly

description: 1834: prices: 1 copy, $1/ year, paid in advance, otherwise, $1.50/ year; 6 copies, $5/ year, paid in advance, “and that proportion for a larger number”

• No issue for May 10 1833

• Religious focus

relevant information:

• At this time, William Nichols also edited the Christian Watchman. A few notices of the Watchman list contents of individual issues: for vol 1 #2, see the Christian Watchman, 14 (26 April 1833), p. 67; for vol 1 #3, see the Christian Watchman, 14 (3 May 1833), p. 70; for vol 1 #4, see the Christian Watchman, 14 (17 May 1833), p. 79; for vol 1 #25, see the Christian Watchman, 14 (4 Oct 1833), p. 159; for vol 1 #26, see the Christian Watchman, 14 (11 Oct 1833), p. 163; for vol 2 #6, see the Christian Watchman, 15 (23 May 1834), p. 83

• A contributor to the Watchman is the subject of a story printed in the Sabbath School Instructer, about a boy with great disadvantages who nevertheless grows up to be a respected adult: “In looking over the ‘Juvenile Watchman,’ printed at Boston, I occasionally see an article with his initials prefixed to it. I am glad of this and trust he will be encouraged to contribute often to that interesting and valuable paper. I read his pieces with a great deal of interest from the fact that he has raised himself, by morality and virtue, to respectability and usefulness, and has avoided the whirlpool of vice, which so often tempts successfully the unwary and thoughtless youth.” [“The Poor Boy”]

relevant quotes:

• On the founding: “The Publisher was long since requested to issue a paper for the Young. He has at length determined to propose such an one for patronage, to which he gives the title, ‘Juvenile Watchman.’ Its object shall be to teach children to watch themselves, and not to be offended when they are watched over in love. He will issue a specimen next week.” [Christian Watchman 1 March 1833]

• The paper was intended to provide both intellectual and moral education: “Its leading object will be, whilst presening instruction and entertainment to the young, to excite their inquiries after knowledge, but above all, to form their moral character.” [“Proposal”]

• The specimen issue was sent to subscribers to the Christian Watchman: “We send a specimen No. of our proposed new paper to a part of our subscribers and all in New-England may expect a copy within three or four days.” [14 (8 March 1833); p. 39] “We would thank those persons who intend subscribing to the Juvenile Watchman to send us their names as soon as they conveniently can, in order that we may know what number to print, as we have concluded to commence the regular publication about the time we stated in the specimen number.” [Christian Watchman 3 April 1833]

• The Watchman’s circulation was disappointingly small: “The first volume of this weekly visitor to the Children in our Christian families will close in two or three weeks. Some of our brethren, whose opinions we respect, have expressed themselves favourably of its merits and utility and have subscribed for it, for the benefit of their families. The patronage, however, has been so small, that the Publisher is almost discouraged in continuing it. He therefore submits a final decision in the matter to his friends; and should a sufficient number of subscribers appear for the next volume, he will cheerfully proceed in its publication. He requests that notices from subscribers, post paid, may be forwarded without delay.” [Christian Watchman 28 March 1834]

• The second year started on a dismal note: “Almost disheartened with the poor encouragement which this little weekly visitor has received from the public, the Publisher had come to the conclusion in the last week, as he thought, to discontinue its publication, and had written his valedictory. Since then, however, though he has received but few new subscribers, and some have fallen off, he has revised the determination of last week, in the hope that this friends will ‘strain a nerve’ to add to his list of subscribers. If every one who now takes the Juvenile Watchman will obtain an additional subscriber, the encouragement will be adequate to its sustenance. But as some may not even do this, he cherishes the hope that others will obtain their two or three. … To give but one specimen of the feeling in this affair, our readers are here presented with an extract of a letter from an esteemed Baptist minister, who promises to make an effort to increase our subscribers, if the paper is continued. His letter thus remarks:—‘Permit me to say a word in relation to the Juvenile Watchman. I have now taken it almost a year, and have carefully observed its influence upon the mind of my little girl (now 7 years old) and I must say that it has been happy. I presume to say that she would not have derived so much advantage or pleasure from the perusal of ten dollars’ worth of the most choice selection of books. Your paper has been a constant feast to her. When she saw your notice in the last Watchman, her eyes filled with tears, and for a while she was inconsolable. From what I can learn, the paper is exerting the best influence among children; and I do hope it will be supported.’ ” [Christian Watchman 11 April 1834]

• In 1835, the Watchman was absorbed by the Youth’s Companion: “The Juvenile Watchman, recently published by Mr. William Nichols, at the office of the Christian Watchman, is discontinued, and Mr. Nichols has kindly recommended to the Subscribers to that paper to take the Youth’s Companion in its stead. We shall accordingly send the Youth’s Companion to those persons who have heretofore taken the Juvenile Watchman—but we are far from intending to obtrude this paper upon them, if they do not wish it. All persons, therefore, who may receive the Youth’s Companion and do not wish to be considered as Subscribers, are requested to write their NAME and place of RESIDENCE on the paper, with the word STOP, and return it by mail to N. Willis, 19 Water-street, Boston. This will save postage. Persons who do not give such notice, in 2 or 3 weeks, will be considered as consenting to become Subscribers to the Youth’s Companion, according to the terms printed on the title page.” [“Juvenile Watchman.” Youth’s Companion.]

• In 1837, the Companion quoted Nichols in its advertisements: “The Companion is a paper which we can most heartily recommend to our juvenile readers. It contains a great amount of excellent reading, designed exclusively for children and youth. Our regret, therefore, at taking leave of our juvenile readers is greatly diminished, by the consideration that we are able to recommend to them, as a substitute for the Juvenile Watchman, a work which so fully meets our approbation.” [advertisement for Youth’s Companion]

absorbed by: Youth’s Companion ; 16 April, 6 June 1827-Sept 1929

source of information: Youth’s Companion; Christian Watchman


• The Christian Watchman reprinted “A Little Thief,” a story from the Juvenile Watchman [15 (11 April 1834); p. 58]


• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (1 March 1833); p. 35. online

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (8 March 1833); p. 39. online

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (3 April 1833); p. 54. online

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (3 April 1833); p. 56.

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (26 April 1833); p. 67. online

• “Juvenile Watchman—No. 3.” Christian Watchman. 14 (3 May 1833); p. 70. online

• notice. American Traveller [Boston, Massachusetts] 7 May 1833; p. 3.

• “Juvenile Watchman—No. 4.” Christian Watchman. 14 (17 May 1833); p. 79. online

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (4 Oct 1833); p. 159. online

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 14 (11 Oct 1833); p. 163. online

• “The Poor Boy.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 2 Jan 1834; p. 4.

• “The Juvenile Watchman.” Christian Watchman. 15 (28 March 1834); p. 50. online

• “Juvenile Watchman, 2d Year.” Christian Watchman. 15 (11 April 1834); p. 59. online

• “Juvenile Watchman—Vol. 2. No. 6.” Christian Watchman. 15 (23 May 1834); p. 83. online

• notice of discontinuance. Boston Recorder [Boston, Massachusetts] 10 April 1835; p. 56.

• “Juvenile Watchman.” Youth’s Companion. 8 (17 April 1835); p. 193. online

• advertisement for Youth’s Companion. Boston Recorder [Boston, Massachusetts] 4 Aug 1837; p. 124.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 65.

The Juvenile Repository ; 6 July 1833-1834?

edited by: “a lady”

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Benjamin H. Greene, Leonard C. Bowles.

• Boston, Massachusetts: J. Dowe, 1834; publisher at 130 Washington St.

frequency: weekly: Saturday; 4 vol/ year

description: 1833: 24 pp.; page size, 5.5″ h x 3.25″ w.

• Volume 1 reprinted at least once

• Last volume located is volume 5; volume 5 #7 was advertised as available on 22 Aug 1834.

relevant quotes:

• “My Little Friends, I shall dedicate this work to you. I trust you will find it both interesting and instructive. I shall write to you on a variety of subjects;—they will be those in connection with your studies at school, your daily amusements, and your happy homes. I shall endeavor to make it suitable for your afternoons of leisure; and, as a part of it will be devoted to scripture history and sacred geography, it will not be improper for a Sabbath-day friend.” [“To My Young Readers.” 1 (6 July 1833); p. 1; 2nd ed.]

• “I shall write a story every week for my young readers—an original one, I mean, and in it I shall always blend some useful hints from which they may derive improvement. But let me first preface a remark or two. You must not let the mere story, which will amuse you while you are reading it, pass from your memories as you throw it aside; but should you see any thing bearing a resemblance to your own feelings which was corrected in another, I trust you will use similar means to correct yourself.” [“Entertaining Matter.” 1 (6 July 1833); p. 3; 2nd ed.]

• “In this age of books, it is with singular diffidence that I add another to the long catalogue. But I have been so situated as to witness the eagerness of children after the most common “story books,” or perhaps inhaling a more pernicious atmosphere in places of public amusement. I would therefore beg leave to suggest the propriety of adding mirth to wisdom, and instruction with play and jollity; knowing them to be better nutriment to the youthful mind than abstract reasoning or dry metaphysics.” [“A Word to Parents.” 1 (6 July 1833); p. 2; 2nd ed.]

• “The first volume of the Juvenile Repository, was completed with the last number. The success which continues to attend it, seems to warrant the Editor in still continuing it. … The variety of its pages, causes the articles to be necessarily short. Any contributors who may furnish useful matter, suited to the object of the work, will receive the thanks of the Editor, by leaving them to the care of the publishers.” [“To the Patrons of the Repository.” 2 (1833); p. 1.]

relevant information: Contents for some issues were printed elsewhere: #8 (“Juvenile Repository, No. 8.” Spirit of the Age and Journal of Humanity 1 (26 Sept 1833); p. 4); #12 [“Juvenile Repository.” Spirit of the Age and Journal of Humanity 1 (26 Sept 1833); p. 3); vol 5 #2 (“The Juvenile Repository.” Christian Register 13 (12 July 1834); p. 111).

source of information: bound volumes 1-3, 5; OCLC; AAS catalog; NUC; Boston Recorder

available: AASHistPer, series 2

• “Anecdote of Goldsmith” was reprinted in the Vermont Courier ([Woodstock, Vermont] 22 Nov 1833; p. 4).


• “Juvenile Repository.” Spirit of the Age and Journal of Humanity 1 (26 Sept 1833); p. 3.

• “Juvenile Repository, No. 8.” Spirit of the Age and Journal of Humanity 1 (26 Sept 1833); p. 4.

• advertisement. Christian Register 13 (1 Feb 1834); p. 20.

• “School Books, School Apparatus, & c.” Christian Register 13 (3 May 1834); p. 71.

• “The Juvenile Repository.” Christian Register 13 (12 July 1834); p. 111.

• advertisement. Boston Recorder 19 (22 Aug 1834); p. 136.

The Guardian ; 1 Sept-15 Nov 1833

published: New York

frequency: semimonthly

description: Page size, 9″ h

relevant quote: A notice includes information on contents in the first issue: “The first number contains the ‘Introduction,’ addressed to the rising generation, and explaining the necessity of a work of this kind for the youthful; ‘Dissertations upon character,’ illustrating the subject of friendship, by some remarks upon the conduct of Antonio, as displayed in Shakspeare’s Merchant of Venice; Verses on a favourite walking-stick, and an article entitled, ‘A search for distinction,’ and some other well written original pieces.” [notice.]

source of information: WorldCat; Mirror


• notice. The New-York Mirror 11 (14 Sept 1833); p. 82.

Juvenile Gazette ; Dec 1833

edited by: J. Spittall

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. Spittall

description: price, $1/ year

relevant information: J. Spittall also did engravings for some Philadelphia publications.

relevant quote: “We have received the first number of a periodical just established in Philadelphia by J. Spittal [sic], entitled the Juvenile Gazette, and devoted to the instruction and amusement of children and youth from five to sixteen years old. It is well printed, on a quarto sheet, and the contents are adapted to the object in view. The subscription price is one dollar a year.” [notice]

source of information: notice


• notice. The Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser [Baltimore, Maryland] 26 Dec 1833; p. 2.

Pupil’s Monitor ; 7 Dec 1833-8 Nov 1834

cover/masthead: 7 Dec 1833-8 Nov 1834

edited by: 1833-1834, Silas Weston (“a teacher of youth”)

published: Providence, Rhode Island: S. R. Weeden; publisher at no. 9 Market Square

• Bound volume: Providence, Rhode Island: Silas Weston

frequency: semimonthly, Saturday

description: 7 Dec 1833-18 Oct 1834: 8 pp. • 8 Nov 1834: 16 pp.

• Price, 50¢/ year; page size, 9.75″ h

relevant information: The issue for 8 Nov 1834 was a double issue.

relevant quotes:

• From the prospectus: “The objects of this paper shall be:— I.—To counteract the many evils to which youthful minds, especially, in our larger towns and cities, are constantly exposed. II.—To place before their minds such subjects as shall have a direct tendency to lead them to a knowledge of themselves, and of the high obligations they are under to love and obey God. III.—To discuss such subjects as shall induce the youth who read them, to reverence and obey their parents, encourage their improvement in learning, incite them to avoid idleness and profanity, falsehood and deceit. … Feeling a deep interest for the welfare of youth, and being sensible of the many snares with which they are surrounded, the publisher—having been encouraged to go forward, by those who feel the worth of souls, and for the glory of God—presents this Prospectus; humbly depending on God to add his blessing. We have ventured to issue this number, and respectfully solicit the co-operation of Parents, and the prayers of Christians.” [1 (7 Dec 1833); p. 1.]

• Weston focused his final editorial on duty and the hereafter: “As the publication of the Pupil’s Monitor closes with the present week, I must take an affectionate leave of my young readers. This I cannot do without feeling emotions of pleasure, while reflecting upon the approbation my small efforts to do good by the publication of this work, have received from many friends who have manifested so deep an interest in the perusal of its pages. Neither can I bid my young friends farewell, without emotions too of regret, while taking a retrospective view of my unfaithfulness to them during the past year, whom I know I must soon meet at the judgment seat of Christ. Still if I know my own heart, I have desired to benefit the readers of this periodical, and thus glorify God by its publication. Nearly one year has elasped since its first number was issued, and whether I have been faithful or unfaithful in the discharge of my duty, it is now gone and gone forever. All that has been said and done, both by publisher and reader, respecting this little work, is sealed up for the Judgment. Yes, dear reader, what you and I have done during the year past—is done forever. that period of time can never be recalled. Although I have been very unfaithful to you, yet I think in some humble degree, the infinite value of the immortal soul has been realized and is still realized, by me. I have desired that my feeble efforts might be a means used by God to bring some never dying soul to submit to Him, whom to know aright is life eternal.” [“To the Readers of the Pupil’s Monitor.” 1 (8 Nov 1834); p. 190]

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 2

Youth’s Lyceum and Literary Gazette ; 1834-1836?

cover/masthead: 1835

published: Xenia, Ohio

description: 4 pp; page size, 19.5″ h

• 16 Feb 1835 is vol 1 #17

source of information: OCLC; AASHistPer

available: AASHistPer, series 2

The Child’s Newspaper ; 7 Jan-Sept 1834

cover/masthead: 1834

edited by: Thomas Brainerd; Benjamin Parham Aydelott, assistant ed.

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Corey & Fairbank; publisher at 186 Main St.

frequency: semimonthly

description: 4 pp.; prices: 1 copy, $1/ year; 4 copies, $3/ year; 7 copies, $5/ year; 15 copies, $10/ year

• Editors working under the supervision of a committee appointed by the Cincinnati Sunday School Union: W. S. Ridgely (of the Presbyterian Church), Jeremiah Butler (of the Episcopal Church), William Bond (of the Baptist Church), and Joseph Hudson (of the Protestant Methodist Church). Profits were “devoted to the American Sunday School Union.”

relevant quotes:

• Introduction: “To all Children and Youth West of the Alleghany Mountains. My Dear Young Friends,—You have seen a great many newspapers, which were made for your fathers and mothers, and for your older brothers and sisters. This little newspaper, which you now hold in your hands, is intended for you. It is not so large as other newspapers, but it contains more that you will be pleased to read, than most of the larger papers. It was made small so that you could get it cheap. … But you ask where it is printed? It is printed at Cincinnati, in the State of Ohio. You have heard of that city, and some of you live in it and know all about it. … Do you ask how often these little newspapers will be sent to you? Once in two weeks. You will get twenty six in a year.—If you are careful not to lose one, nor tear one up, at the end of the year your mother or sister will sew them together, and make you a very interesting book. Do you inquire how much these little papers will cost? Only one dollar a year. By saving two cents a week, for fifty weeks from the little sums which your friends give you, and sending it to Messrs. Corey & Fairbank, Cincinnati, you can have The Child’s Newspaper a year.” [“To All Children and Youth West of the Alleghany Mountains.” 1 (7 Jan 1834); p. 1]

• The Christian Magazine praised it: “We like it very well, and the better, because, though designed for children, it is not, to use an expressive word, babyish.”

continued by: Youth’s Magazine ; 30 Sept 1834-21 July 1837, Sept 1837-after May 1838

source of information: APS reel 400; Dechert

available: APS II (1800-1850), reel 400


• notice. Western Monthly Magazine. 2 (Feb 1834); p. 107. online

• “The Child’s Newspaper.” The Christian Magazine 3 (Feb 1834); p. 72. [google books]

• “The Child’s Newspaper.” Western Luminary 10 (26 Feb 1834); p. 131.

• “The Child’s Newspaper.” Western Luminary 10 (19 March 1834); p. 142.

• “In Memoriam—Thomas Brainerd, D. D.” The Daily Evening Telegraph [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 22 Aug 1866; p. 4.

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

The Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visiter (also, The Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visitor) • The Child’s Gazette ; 12 July 1834, Jan 1835

cover/masthead: 1834

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Daniel D. Smith, 1834; publisher at 127 Washington St. Printed by John Emmes Dill

• Boston, Massachusetts: W. C. George, 1835; publisher at 43 Washington St.

frequency: monthly; 1834: 2nd Saturday; 1835: 15th of month

description: as proposed: 32 pp.; price, $1/ year, “to which twenty-five cents will be added for every three month’s delay in payment.” • 12 July 1834: 32 pp.; page size, 6.25″ h; price, $1/ year • Jan 1835: 32 pp.; price, $1/ year

• Apparently, two issues

• Religious focus: Universalist

relevant quotes:

• The proposal was forceful: “The object of this publication is to furnish the Universalist community with a work particularly adapted to the tastes and capacities of children. Nearly all the sects in Christendom have some work of similar character, with the exception of the denomination of Universalists. They are obliged to obtain books for their children, which are strongly tinctured with error—books which contain sentiments revolting to their hearts, because there are none other in existence. And while the world is deluged with tracts and story books, which are full of mental poisons, we are desirous of forming a counter current; and the work which we here propose to publish will, we are firmly persuaded, answer this purpose, and meet the wants of our order in this respect. It will contain interesting stories, historical sketches, familiar illustrations of the doctrine and tendency of Universalism, illustrated by appropriate cuts and engravings; and hymns, adapted to the capacities of children, will constitute the main body of the work. Coming in monthly numbers, covered and stitched, it will form an interesting library for a family of children, and also for a Sabbath school. The work will be commenced as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers are obtained to warrant the undertaking.” [in Universal Watchman 21 June 1834]

• The proposal was greeted with enthusiasm: “Br. D. D. Smith of Boston, proposes to publish a new religious periodical, under the above title [of Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visitor]. We decidedly approve of the publication of a work of this character.—While our opposers are using their most strenuous efforts to instil their partial tenets into the minds of every class of children, by means of books and tracts, designed especially for this purpose, our denomination is almost destitute of any publication calculated to lead the youthful mind to adopt just and consistent views of the character of their Creator and Father. … May the undertaking be crowned with the most abundant success.” [Universal Watchman 21 June 1834]

• Smith was modest about the first issue, but hopeful about the next: “We have issued this number under very unfavorable circumstances, having had but a little time to prepare and select suitable matter for these pages. In consequence of not having free access to such sources of information as were necessary to our setting before our friends the variety we intended, we have not fully accomplished our original purpose. this number, such as it is, with all its imperfections, is submitted to the attention and liberality of a charitable public. We are happy, however, to inform our friends, that we have made arrangements for the next number, and, unless prevented by some unseen and unexpected occurrence, we shall give our little friends a great variety. We have it in contemplation, and have made partial arrangements to that effect, to give, in the succeeding numbers of this volume, likenesses of our most distinguished divines, and accompany each with a short biography. And we indulge the hope, that all the friends of truth will use their influence in favor of the work.” [“Notice to Our Patrons.” 1 (12 July 1834); p. 32]

• Smith apparently tried two different formats: “We have received a second first No. of the Child’s Universalist Gazette, in a form somewhat different from the first specimen number. It is now a small handsome book of 32 pages, neatly executed and judiciously filled. It is to be published monthly in Boston by Rev. D. D. Smith, editor of ‘The Universalist.’ ‘Free from the prevailing dogmas of the day, it will contain original tales, of a pleasing and instructive character, historical and biographical sketches, illustrated with engravings; anecdotes and poetry, written in a style suited to the work. In addition to this, each number will contain a piece of music adapted to the capacities of children.’ Such a work cannot but be valuable, and must be received with a glad welcome in every Universalist family where there are children. Perhaps we could not do a greater or more pleasing service to our ‘little ones’ than to secure the regular reception of this beautiful visitor. It would be money well laid out. The price per year is only one dollar in advance. We shall be happy to forward orders for the work.” [“Child’s Universalist Gazette”]

• Smith’s introduction to the issue speaks of the change: “With this number we present our patrons with the Child’s Gazette in a somewhat different form. Numerous difficlties have transpired to prevent the regular publication of it, heretofore, as might have been wished. Fully aware that such a work is needed in the Universalist community, we have commenced the publication of it, hoping to make it an [p. 3] acceptable addition to the many valuable periodicals which are now receiving from them ample encouragement. And while we shall strive to have it interesting, our highest aim will be to make it useful, by advocating such principles of virtue and morality, as will check the vitiating influences of vice, and promote the growth of vital piety in the hearts of children. Free from the revailing dogmas of the day, it will contain original tales, of a pleasing and instructive character; Historical and Biographical sketches, illustrated with engravings; Anecdotes and Poetry, written in a style suited to the work. In addition to this, each number will contain a piece of music adapted to the capacities of children. For the two numbers which have been issued, no compensation will be required. To our patrons we tender our sincere thanks for their patience, in waiting the issue of our former undertaking, and no pains, on our part, will be spared to make it worthy of their patronage.” [“To Our Patrons,” in Universal Watchman 31 Jan 1835]

• Unfortunately, editors like the one for the Baltimore Southern Pioneer didn’t help the Gazette; a notice in the issue for 25 April 1835 praised the magazine, but pointed out that the editor had been remiss: “We owe Br. S. an apology for neglecting to notice his ‘Child’s Gazette.’ ” The last issue had appeared three months earlier.

source of information: AAS; notices, etc., below; OCLC; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 2

• The Universalist Watchman [Woodstock, Vermont] reprinted “the Flower-Garden” and “Crucifixion of the Saviour,” to give readers a taste of the Gazette’s first issue. [5 July 1834; p. 2]


• “The Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visitor.” Universalist Watchman, Repository and Chronicle [Woodstock, Vermont] 21 June 1834; p. 2.

• “The Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visitor.” Universalist Watchman, Repository and Chronicle [Woodstock, Vermont] 5 July 1834; p. 2.

• “Child’s Universalist Gazette.” The Christian Intelligencer and Eastern Chronicle 9 (30 Jan 1835); p. 18.

• “The Child’s Universalist Gazette.” Universalist Watchman, Repository and Chronicle [Woodstock, Vermont] 31 Jan 1835; pp. 2-3.

• notice. Baltimore Southern Pioneer and Richmond Gospel Visiter 4 (25 April 1835); p. 207. [google books]

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 593. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 13.

Youth’s Magazine ; 30 Sept 1834-21 July 1837, Sept 1837-after May 1838

edited by: 1834-1836, Thomas Brainerd • 17 March 1837-1838, Orlando Chester

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Taylor & Tracy, 1834-1835. • Cincinnati, Ohio: E. W. Chester & W. Fitch Barnes, 1836-1837.

frequency: 1834-July 1837, biweekly: Tuesday. Sept-Nov 1837, monthly.

description: Sept 1834-1837: 24 pp.; page size, 6.25″ h x 5″ w; price, under $2. An advertisement in 1835 states that the Magazine was 34 pages.

• 1 Sept 1835 is vol 1 #25

• 17 March-Nov 1837: 32 pp.; duodecimo; page size, 6.25″ h x 5″ w; price, $2

• New series began 17 March 1837

• No Aug 1837 issue

• Circulation (from magazine): 9 Dec 1834, 1500.

continues: The Child’s Newspaper ; 7 Jan-Sept 1834

absorbed by: (1) The Mentor and Fireside Review (for young adults); Jan-Dec 1839; (2) Youth’s Cabinet ; 28 April 1837-March 1857

relevant information:

• The contents of vol 2 #1 were listed in the Alton Observer [18 Jan 1838].

• Bound copies of vol 1 of the new series were available Feb 1838; they contained 384 pages and cost $1.25.

• The magazine’s editor may be referred to in a long 1838 piece on the role of newspapers in the murder of Elijah Lovejoy in 1837; the piece mentions “a series of communications made some years ago to the Cincinnati Journal or Youth’s Magazine, we forget which, by Rev. Mr. Sawtell” on slaves being manacled. [“Communication from Alton”]

relevant quotes:

• A thousand copies of issue 3 were lost in a fire: “On Wednesday night last week, awaking from sleep, I perceived an unusual light in the chamber. All was still for a minute or two—and then was heard the footsteps of a man running very fast, and crying out at every breath, Fire! fire!! fire!!! I rose and went to the window. The whole city was lighted up by a burning building. Soon the bells in all parts of the city began to ring, and thousands rushed towards the spot. The engines or machines with which the firemen throw water to the top of four story buildings, were soon put in motion, and a deluge of water was poured upon the flames, but the fire could not be subdued before it had burnt out almost every thing of value in the large three story book-bindery at the corner of Walnut and Fifth streets. A great many books sent there to be bound, were lost. Many thousand dollars would not pay the damage. One thousand copies of the third number of the Youth’s Magazine were burnt up—so that many of our little friends will be deprived of that number. They must be reconciled to their loss, for it was brought about by the hand of God, who doeth all things well.” [“Great Fire in Cincinnati.” 1 (11 Nov 1834); p. 93]

• Brainerd hoped that writers in Cincinnati would provide pieces for the magazine, but was disappointed: “We now have nearly fifteen hundred subscribers to this little work, yet, strange as it may seem, during four months past, only one individual, except the editors, in Cincinnati, has written an article for our young friends. At first, we had many correspondents here, but our friends ‘have become weary in well-doing.’ It is doubtless more popular and profitable to write prize tales for literary works, than to labor in the every day business of furnishing amusement and instruction for the rising generation. But is not this a more useful field of labor?” [“Youth’s Magazine.” 1 (11 Nov 1834); p. 96]

• Publishing was often unprofitable, as the Cincinnati Journal noted: “The Youth’s Magazine, of Cincinnati, has near 1500 subscribers, but thus far it has yielded no profit to the publishers. The editor has never yet received a cent for his services. It lives and only lives.” [in “To the Patrons of the Chronicle”]

• The issue for 8 Jan 1836 was three weeks late: “It has been a source of great regret to the editor that, in consequence of the sudden death of our printer, and the failure to obtain paper in consequence of the coldness of the weather, our Magazine has been delayed about three weeks. On account of this delay, our young friends will receive no fewer numbers for our money—as we shall make up for lost time.” [“Delay” 2 (8 Jan 1836); p. 128]

• Issues for summer 1836 may have been edited by someone other than Thomas Brainerd, who was traveling: “The Editor of this Magazine expects to leave Cincinnati, in about two weeks, to be absent nearly or quite two months. During his absence the Magazine will be managed by a friend of children.” [“Absence of the Editor” 2 (28 April 1836); p. 224]

• About the mergers: “Mr. Taylor, under the impression that the Fireside Review was not satisfactory to the subscribers to the Youth’s Magazine, and it being chargeable with postage when returned, has declined continuing it to them. I have therefore made an arrangement with Mr. N. Southard to replace the Magazine with the Youth’s Cabinet …. The readers of the Youth’s Magazine have often been interested with extracts and articles from the Cabinet while it was published in Boston.” [E. W. Chester. “Youth’s Magazine—Publisher’s Notice”]

source of information: 1835-1836, scattered issues; Jan-Nov 1837 bound vol; Dechert; Youth’s Cabinet; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 2

excerpts online


• “To the Patrons of the Chronicle.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 2 Jan 1835; p. 2.

• “Youth’s Magazine.” The Pittsburgh Gazette [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] 9 March 1835; p. 2.

• “The Youth’s Magazine.” Parley’s Magazine 1 Jan 1837; p. 223.

• We have received the first number. Democrat and Herald [Wilmington, Ohio] 21 April 1837; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Magazine.” Alton Observer [Alton, Illinois] 18 Jan 1838; p. 6.

• “Communication from Alton.” Alton Observer [Alton, Illinois] 25 Jan 1838; p. 4.

• The 1st Vol. Alton Observer [Alton, Illinois] 1 Feb 1838; p. 7.

• “To Those Who Took the Youth’s Magazine.” and E. W. Chester. “Youth’s Magazine—Publisher’s Notice.”Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (20 June 1839); p. 98

• “In Memoriam—Thomas Brainerd, D. D.” The Daily Evening Telegraph [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 22 Aug 1866; p. 4.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

The Juvenile Missionary Intelligencer ; March 1835-Feb 1838

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: the Juvenile Foreign Missionary Society of the First Reformed Presbyterian Church.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 12 pp.; page size, 7″ h; price 50¢/ year

• Religious focus: Presbyterian

source of information: NUC; OCLC; Foreign Missionary


• “Juvenile Missionary Intelligencer.” Foreign Missionary Chronicle 3 (April 1835); p. 64.

The Slave’s Friend ; April 1835-before April 1839

cover/masthead: 1835-1836 | 1837

published: New York, New York: American Anti-Slavery Society.

frequency: usually monthly, in 1835 and 1836, the fourth week of the month; 12 issues/ vol

• #1 was available April 1835 [“List of Anti-Slavery Publications for Sale.” New York Evangelist]

• #2 was available by 13 June 1835 [“Anti-Slavery Publications.” Liberator 13 June 1835] “Nos. 1 & 2” were listed as available 27 June 1835 [“Anti-Slavery Publications.” Liberator 27 June 1835]

• #3 was available July 1835 [“Anti-Slavery Disclaimer”] It was advertised in The Emancipator on 1 Aug 1835 [“Slave’s Friend—No. 3”] and described by the New England Spectator on 5 Aug 1835 [“The Slave’s Friend.”; p. 155].

• #10 was available by 19 March 1836 [“Just Published”]

• #37, #38, and #39 are the only issues described in the American Anti-Slavery Society’s sixth annual report as having been “published or stereotyped since the 1st of the 5th Mo. [ie, May], 1838”. [Sixth Annual Report; p. 48.]

description: Issue #1, 12 pp. #2-#39, 16 pp.; page size, 4.5″ h x 2.75″ w; price, 1¢/ issue; 10¢/ dozen; 80¢/ 100; $6.50/ 1000

• Also available as bound volumes, originally at 25¢ each. Vol 1 with 236 pages [“Descriptive Catalogue”]; available July 1836 [“Anti-Slavery Publications.” Philanthropist 8 July 1836; p. 3.] Vol 2 with 240 pages; available Oct 1837 [“Descriptive Catalogue”] Sets of three bound volumes were listed for sale until at least 1843. [“Books! Books!!”]

• Circulation, 25,000-50,000? • June 1835, 25,000 [Christian Watchman 26 June 1835] • 1835-1836, average 15,000/ month; total, 205,000 [Third Annual Report; p. 35] • 131,050 copies were published “in the year ending 11th May [1837]” [“Correspondence”] • 1838, 97,600 [“Character”]

• The magazine was distributed not just through paid subscriptions, but by being left in public places in the same way that religious tracts were distributed, and as all the Society’s anti-slavery publications were distributed. (The cover for 1835-1836, linked above, is marked “Read + Circulate.”) In 1837, the Friend is listed among the publications to be distributed widely.

• Early issues contained three illustrations; after the first year, most issues appear to have contained two. A handful of stock illustrations were used again and again.

• Cost of printing issues from May 1835 to May 1836 was $1381.07. [“Publishing Agent’s Report.” Third Annual Report]

• Cost of printing issues from May 1836 to May 1837 was $1081.84. [“Publishing Agent’s Report.” Fourth Annual Report]

• Cost of printing issues from 9 May 1837 to 1 May 1838 was $767.86. [“Treasurer’s Report.” Fifth Annual Report]

• Cost of printing the last three issues of the Friend was $25.05. [“Treasurer’s Report.” Sixth Annual Report]

• 39 issues total [Sixth Annual Report; p. 48]

• Described as “discontinued” on 12 April 1839, in an advertisement for The Youth’s Cabinet: “Since the Slave’s Friend has been discontinued, something of this kind is much called for.” [“The Youth’s Cabinet”]

interesting information:

• A newspaper titled The Slave’s Friend was proposed in Columbus, Ohio, in Sept 1859; it would be published by African-Americans. [news item. The Daily Ohio Statesman (Columbus, Ohio) 24 Sept 1859; p. 3]

relevant quotes:

• Founding the magazine: “As soon after the Annual meeting of the American [Anti-Slavery] Society, as it was practicable, the enlarged plan of publication and distribution went into operation. The Emancipator, Human Rights, the Record, and the Slave’s Friend, each of them monthly periodicals, issued in successive weeks, at New York, were all published in large editions, and were scattered unsparingly through the land.” The annual meeting was held 20 Jan 1835. [Report; p. 17] “Successive weeks” refers to the publishing schedule: “On the first week of each month is issued a small newspaper, entitled HUMAN RIGHTS; on the second week, the ANTI-SLAVERY RECORD; on the third week, the EMANCIPATOR, …; and on the fourth week, the SLAVE’S FRIEND.” [“Publications of the American Anti-Slavery Society”]

• The Friend was written to be easily understood: “The Slave’s Friend is printed for children. The editor wants to have them love the poor slaves. He has tried to write this little book so that very young children can understand it. It is hoped that all the little boys and girls in the land may read it.” [#1; back cover (cover page 4)]

• Anti-abolitionists were intemperate on the subject of the Friend, including slaveholder John Tyler, who in 1841 would become President of the United States on the death of William Henry Harrison: “He had not seen the Slave’s Friend; judging, however, from the other [antislavery] papers, he concluded it to be a misnomer. It should rather be called the slave’s enemy, since its circulation among us, in company with its three adjuncts [ie, three other antislavery periodicals], had produced a curtailment of privileges heretofore willingly, nay, gladly granted by the master to his slaves, and which, before these fanatical teachers had arisen in the land, were gradually and daily becoming greater and greater.” [Tyler; vol 1, p. 576]

• Unfortunately, the simplicity of the text appears to have convinced pro-slavery advocates that it was intended for slaves: “The Slave’s Friend … is a periodical designed ostensibly for children, but intended, beyond a doubt, in reality, to operate on the slaves. It is written in very simple language, and is decorated with inflammatory pictures. Its very title betrays its real character; and its contents prove it to be intended for the slave alone.” [South Vindicated; p. 197]

• Like the Society’s other publications, the projected readership of the Friend wasn’t only sympathizers, but anyone who might be persuaded to join the cause: “It is intended to distribute all these publications, so far as the funds of the society will allow, gratuitously, to persons not known to be abolitionists.” [“Publications of the American Anti-Slavery Society”] The Society stated that the Friend “will be sold at a low rate to subscribers, and will be furnished to auxiliaries for gratuitous distribution among those who are ignorant of anti-slavery doctrines and measures, or prejudiced, without the inquiry against them.” [“Address of the Executive Committee”]

• This tiny pamphlet was considered dangerous contraband, and the Society’s distribution method made for some dramatic scenes: Issue #3 is listed among abolitionist works destroyed at Charleston in July 1835: “Those destroyed at Charleston were principally the newspaper called the Emancipator, for August, together with the Anti-Slavery Record, No. 7, and the Slave’s Friend, No. 3.” [“Anti-Slavery Disclaimer”] Copies of the Friend were among other “incendiary” anti-abolitionist periodicals “torn into ten thousand pieces” and scattered in the Delaware River at Philadelphia; the periodicals were addressed to individuals in slave-holding states. [“A Disclosure”]

• Nathaniel Southard notes in the 16 May 1839 issue of the Youth’s Cabinet that “A new and interesting Number [of the Slave’s Friend] has just been published. Price one cent.” [p. 78] He may have been referring to the Feb or March 1839 issue, as the Friend is described as “discontinued” on 12 April 1839, coincidentally in an advertisement for the Cabinet. [“The Youth’s Cabinet.” Liberator 12 April 1839: 59.]

• Frances E. Willard, who became prominent in the temperance and women’s rights movements, credited the lessons she learned from reading the Friend: “ ‘The Slave’s Friend,’ that earliest book of all my reading, stamped upon me the purpose to help humanity, the sense of brotherhood, of all nations as really one, and of God as the equal Father of all races. This, perhaps, was a better sort of religion than some Sunday-school books would have given. It occurs to me that I have not estimated at its true value that nugget of a little fanatical volume published for children by the Anti-slavery Society.” [Willard; p. 8]

source of information: #1-38 bound vol & scattered issues; Cabinet; Report; notices & advertisements (listed below); Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3

• microfilm: Nineteenth-Century Children’s Periodicals. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979.



Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. Reproduction: Westport, Connecticut: Negro Universities Press, Greenwood Press, 1970.

• notice of publication of first issue. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 28 March 1835; p. 51.

• “List of Anti-Slavery Publications for Sale.” New York Evangelist 6 (25 April 1835); p. 67.

• “Anti-Slavery Publications.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 13 June 1835; p. 96.

• “American Anti-Slavery Society.” Christian Watchman 26 June 1835; p. 3.

• “The Slave’s Friend.” Human Rights 1 (July 1835); pp. 1-2.

• “Work for Abolitionists.” Christian Secretary 14 (18 July 1835); p. 106.

• “Incendiary Tracts and Papers.” The Southern Patriot [Charleston, South Carolina] 29 July 1835; p. 2.

• “Slave’s Friend—No. 3.” The Emancipator 1 Aug 1835; p. 3.

• “The Slave’s Friend.” New England Spectator 1 (5 Aug 1835); p. 155.

• “Suppressed Newspapers, &c. at Charleston.” Boston Daily Advertiser & Patriot 42 (20 Aug 1835); p. 1.

• “Anti-Slavery Disclaimer.” Zion’s Herald 6 (26 Aug 1835); p. 134.

• “A Disclosure—Incendiary Publications Destroyed.” National Gazette and Literary Register 13 (26 Aug 1835); p. 2, col 2.

Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York: William S. Door, 1835; inside front cover (cover page 2) & back cover (cover page 4).

• “List of Anti-Slavery Publications, for sale.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 9 Jan 1836; p. 7.

• “Publications of the American Anti-Slavery Society.” The Anti-Slavery Record 2 (March 1836); p. 14.

• “Just Published.” New York Evangelist 7 (19 March 1836); p. 47.

• “Address of the Executive Committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society.” Philanthropist 1 (1 July 1836); p. 2.

• “Anti-Slavery Publications.” Philanthropist 1 (8 July 1836); p. 3.

• “Publishing Agent’s Report.” Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York: William S. Dorr, 1836. Also, p. 35]

The South Vindicated from the Treason and Fanaticism of the Northern Abolitionists. Philadelphia: H. Manley, 1836; pp. 196-197.

• Description of the burning of abolitionist periodicals in South Carolina. The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, for 1837. Boston, Massachusetts: N. Southard & D. K. Hitchcock, 1836; p. 18. Description of the Friend is on back cover (cover page 4)

• “Publishing Agent’s Report.” Fourth Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York: William S. Dorr, 1837.

• “Descriptive Catalogue of Anti-Slavery Works for Sale by Isaac Knapp.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 27 Oct 1837; p. 176.

• “Correspondence.” The Anti-Slavery Examiner 8 (1 May 1838); p. 18-19. Also “Correspondence.” Philanthropist 1 (12 June 1838); p. 1. Also “Interesting Correspondence.” Boston Recorder 19 June 1838; p. 102. Also “Interesting Correspondence.” Christian Watchman 6 July 1838; p. 108. Also Correspondence, Between the Hon. F. H. Elmore and James G. Birney. New York: The American Anti-Slavery Society, 1838.

• “Treasurer’s Report.” Fifth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York: William S. Dorr, 1838.

• “New Books.” Philanthropist 2 (29 Jan 1839): advertising section page 4.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 12 April 1839; p. 59.

• “The Character of the Abolition Organization.” From Abolition a Sedition. Colonization Herald, and General Register 1 (May 1839); p. 223. [google books]

• notice. Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (16 May 1839); p. 78. online

Sixth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839; p. 48, “Treasurer’s Report.”

• “Books, Pamph[l]ets, Prints, etc. For sale at the Depository of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 8 Jan 1841; p. 7.

• “Anti-Slavery Publications.” New York Evangelist 13 (3 March 1842); p. 35.

• “Anti-Slavery Publications.” Philanthropist 7 (4 Jan 1843): advertising section page 4.

• “Books! Books!!” Philanthropist 7 (30 Aug 1843): advertising section page 4.

• Lyon G. Tyler. The Letters and Times of the Tylers. Richmond, Virginia: Whittet & Shepperson, 1884; vol 1, p. 576.

• Frances E. Willard. Glimpses of Fifty Years. Chicago, Illinois: H. J. Smith & Co., 1889. Reproduced New York, New York: Source Book Press, 1970.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Holly Keller. “Juvenile Antislavery Narrative and Notions of Childhood.” Children’s Literature, 24 (1996); pp. 86-100.

• Christopher D. Geist. “The Slave’s Friend: An Abolitionist Magazine for Children.” American Periodicals 9 (1999); pp. 27-35.

• Deborah C. De Rosa. Domestic Abolitionism and Juvenile Literature, 1830-1865. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 2003.

• Spencer D. C. Keralis. “Feeling Animal: Pet-Making and Mastery in the Slave’s Friend.” American Periodicals 2 (Fall 2012); pp. 121-138.

• Jonathan Shectman. Bound for the Future: Child Heroes of the Underground Railroad. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2012; pp. 31-34.

• Paula T. Connolly. Slavery in American Children’s Literature, 1790-2010. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2013.

The Juvenile Reformer and Sabbath School Instructor ; 27 May 1835-13 May 1836

edited by: Daniel C. Colesworthy, 1833-17 May 1837

published: Portland, Maine: Daniel C. Colesworthy; publisher at 23 Exchange St., 1835; publisher at Mariner’s Church Building, Fore St., 1836

frequency: weekly; Wednesday morning

description: 4 pp.; page size, 13.75″ h; price, $1/ year

relevant information: Apparent audience for the Reformer is teenagers

relevant quotes:

• This periodical’s complex history begins with it being a nondenominational work for Sunday schools and those who taught them (Sabbath School Instructor); then becoming a paper focused on guiding young readers through topics of social and personal reform (Juvenile Reformer); then shifting to advising adults on resisting various forms of vice (Journal of Reform).

• As Sabbath School Instructor: “The subjects which [the paper] is intended to embrace, are those which relate to the general interests of Sabbath schools—accounts of the conversion, and happy deaths of children—principles of religious education—parental influence and example—hints to teachers—biography—useful anecdotes—miscellaneous intelligence—poetry—and in short, such articles as are calculated to cultivate a taste for mental improvement, while it leads the mind to a knowledge of the Saviour. It will be the great object of this paper to propagate the principles of pure and undefiled religion, and nothing of a sectarian nature will appear in it.” [“Prospectus.” Sabbath School Instructor 1 (1 June 1831); p. 1] The Instructor includes a “Children’s Department” with tales of the deaths of pious children, stories of religious conversions, and pieces on biblical and moral themes—one accompanied by an illustration modeled on one of Peter Parley. [“Mr. Goodwise.” 4 (20 May 1835); p. 207] The first issue contains an explanation that the paper resembled one proposed by Asa Cummings, who withdrew his periodical in favor of the Instructor.

• Apparently intended to reform juveniles, the Juvenile Reformer inveighs against a variety of temptations, from gambling and alcohol to obscene books and slavery. The shift in focus was abrupt (it’s unannounced in the Instructor) and intended to teach the morality that Colesworthy saw other adults failing to provide: “Our design in altering the name and character of our paper, is, to be more useful to our fellow creatures. Our heart has sunk within us, as from time to time we have witnessed the vicious habits of the young, while parents, guardians and master mechanics are so negligent of the responsible duties devolving upon them. We do not hesitate to say, that the morals of our youth are shamefully neglected, by those whose bounden duty it is, to watch over them with care and vigilence. In proof of this, witness the number of confectionary shops in our city, supported almost entirely by the young—the congregations of youth at the corners of our streets, every evening in the week—the getting up of juvenile companies to parade our city, to foster pride and every bad propensity of their natures—the multiplicity of brothels and abandoned characters—and the obscene and profane language with which our ears are continually saluted. … For one, we feel determined to fight against vice and immorality in whatever shape or under whatever name we may meet it. We hear the voice of Jehovah continually sounding in our ears, ‘CRY ALOUD—SPARE NOTshow the people their sins’—and how can we forbear? … Vice shall be exposed. In its naked deformity it shall be held up for the public gaze. Every vile haunt shall be laid open—every hidden iniquity brought to light. Unless the friends of virtue take a decided stand, the present generation will sink to a premature grave, and their souls be eternally lost.” [“Our Object.” Juvenile Reformer 5 (27 May 1835); p. 2]]

• Rather than providing blandly uplifting reading, pieces were intended to warn readers about the pitfalls surrounding them; one story reprinted from the Advocate of Moral Reform features an innocent clergyman’s daughter almost imprisoned in a brothel, but rescued by her husband and “saved by the knowledge possessed by her husband on this subject. The Advocate of Moral Reform was not taken in her father’s family; if it had been she would not have been entrapped.” [“The Importance of the Young Being Fully Acquainted with the Devices of the Enemy.” Juvenile Reformer 5 (13 May 1836); p. 205]

• The Liberator approved: “A considerable portion of [the Reformer] is devoted to the cause of the colored population, both bond and free, and we hope they will patronize it in their Sabbath Schools. Mr. Colesworthy is a meritorious young man of considerable talent, who early espoused the anti-slavery cause, and, of course, has received a share of the scorn and obloquy which have been so liberally heaped upon all those who plead for the oppressed in this blood-stained land.” [“Worthy of Patronage”]

• The Vermont Telegraph greatly admired the Reformer: “This little sheet will do more to purify and elevate human society, than a score of professedly religious papers that might be named, that possess two or three times its physical dimensions. To all parents who wish to buy health and salvation for their children so far as these can be obtained from a newspaper, we urgently recommend this little, great work.” [11 Feb 1836]

• Colesworthy was, in fact, physically attacked more than once while editing the Juvenile Reformer, apparently because of his attempts at reform. [Vermont Telegraph 25 Feb 1836 & 7 April 1836]

• The focus on exposure of vice continues in the Journal of Reform, with Colesworthy describing a veritable superhighway to perdition: “Every reader may not know our object. It is to expose vice and wickedness, under whatever cloak they may have found concealment. We are surrounded by unprincipled characters, who are daily on the watch to entrap the unwary and thoughtless, and not only rob them of their health, but deprave and brutalize their minds. Their object seems to be to trample upon deathless souls, and then leave them to the scorn of the world. Such demons shall be held up in their deformity to the gaze of mankind, that the young and the old may know who to avoid and despise. It would seem almost incredible, that there are characters base enough to trifle with the best affections of a confiding heart, by first winning it, and with all the malignity of a denizen of Tophet, leave it crushed and broken. … The libertine is ever active—night after night he goeth forth in quest of prey, and in a moment perhaps destroys a heart cherished by a circle of tender friends; and unless the vile wretch is stayed in his career of ruin, he will often cause a tide of desolation to sweep over the peace and happiness of whole neighborhoods. … The gambler who is consuming the midnight lamp in his den of iniquity, and fattening on the tears of wives and children, shall be exposed. … The abominations of the confectionary shop—the grog shop—the rum oyster shop, shall be made known, that they may be read and avoided by the multitude, who are daily passing by them blindfolded. … Nor amid our other duties shall we forget our poor brethren in chains. We have a soul to feel for them. … Our paper is small, but weekly we shall publish some article that will induce our readers to commiserate with the poor, despised, degraded slave.” [“Our Object.” Journal of Reform 6 (25 May 1836); p. 2] The paper included a three-part article on onanism, advice on marriage, pieces on temperance and gambling, and—astonishing to 21st-century readers—diatribes about confectioners, who were “doing more towards making drunkards by vitiating the tastes of the young, than any other class of the community.” [“Friendly Advice.” Journal of Reform 6 (17 May 1837); p. 207.]

continues: Sabbath School Instructor (also, Sabbath School Instructer) ; 1 June 1831-18 May 1835 (for parents, teachers, and children)

continued as: Journal of Reform ; 25 May 1836-17 May 1837 (for adults)

which was absorbed by: the Portland Transcript [Richardson]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 2; Duyckinck; Matthews; OCLC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 2: Sabbath School Instructor, Juvenile Reformer, & Journal of Reform

• Pieces were reprinted in several papers: “Injustice” (against an African-American child) in the Liberator [17 Oct 1835; p. 4]; “Brandy” (temperance) in Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont; 22 March 1836; p. 1]; “Let It Alone” (exposing vice) in Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont; 31 March 1836; p. 1]; “True Courage” (against fighting) in the Lamoille Standard [Johnson, Vermont; 26 Nov 1842; p. 4]


• “Sabbath School Instructor.” New York Evangelist 2 (18 June 1831); p. 255.

• “Sabbath School Instructor.” Western Recorder 8 (21 June 1831); p. 99.

• “Items for Youth.” Rose Bud. 1 (15 June 1833); p. 167. online

• “Worthy of Patronage.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 6 June 1835; p. 3.

• “Juvenile Reformer and Sabbath School Instructor.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 11 Feb 1836; p. 1.

• The Editor of the Juvenile Reformer. Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 25 Feb 1836; p. 3.

• “Juvenile Reformer.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 7 April 1836; p. 3.

• “Journal of Reform—Portland.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 19 May 1837; p. 83.

• H. W. Richardson. “The Press of Cumberland County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 66. []

• Evert A. and George L. Duyckinck. Cyclopaedia of American Literature. N.p.: N.p., 1875; vol 2, p. 850.

• obituary of Daniel Clement Colesworthy. The New-England Historical and Genealogical Register 49 (July 1893); p. 387.

• Harriet L. Matthews. “Children’s Magazines.” Bulletin of Bibliography. 1 (April 1899); pp. 133-136.

Sunday School Magazine ; June 1835-1851

published: New York, New York: Lane & Tippett, for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1846; printed by J. Collord

frequency: monthly

description: 1835: price, 2¢/ each. 1846: 32 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h x 3.5″ w

• Religious focus: Methodist Episcopal

relevant quote: The Magazine was proposed by committee in May 1835: “The attention of the [book] committee has been called to the subject of extending the supply of juvenile publications, especially to meet the wants of our Sabbath schools. A monthly periodical of a miscellaneous character, to be furnished to order, rather than to depend upon a subscription list, would, perhaps, be most suitable. Something of the kind is much wanted.” After verbiage not unfamiliar to anyone who’s been on a committee, the point is arrived at: “Resolved, That it is the opinion of this conference that an additional periodical devoted chiefly to the interests of Sabbath schools is necessary, and respectfully recommends to the editors and agents to commence, as soon as practicable, a monthly miscellany, to be called the Sunday School Magazine.” [“Report of Book Committee to the New York Conference”]

relevant information: The contents for the Dec 1836 issue were published in the Christian Advocate and Journal [11 (2 Dec 1836); p. 59].

source of information: 1846 bound vol; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3


• “Report of Book Committee to the New York Conference.” Western Christian Advocate 2 (12 June 1835); p. 25.

• “General Book Concern.” Christian Advocate and Journal 10 (22 July 1836); p. 19.

• “The Sunday School Magazine.” Christian Advocate and Journal 11 (2 Dec 1836); p. 59.

• “General Book Concern.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (18 Oct 1843); p. 39.

The Family School ; Sept, Nov 1836

edited by: Elizabeth Palmer Peabody

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Marsh, Capen & Lyon

• Salemn, Massachusetts: W. & S. B. Ives; “printed at the Salem Observer press”

frequency: as planned, weekly

description: Sept issue: 8 pp.; Nov issue, 16 pp.; page size, 9.75″ h; price, $3/ year • 2 issues

relevant quotes:

• About the name: “[T]he name implies only that to which we aspire. This is no less than to become a weekly visitor to the domestic fireside, as a friend to the mother in her duties; an intelligent counsellor to her elder daughters in their moral and intellectual self-culture, after the period of school going is over; and a not unwelcome play-fellow to boys and girls in the intervals of school study, even to ‘the youngling of the flock,’ for whom we always intend to have a story.” [“Prospectus.” 1 (Sept 1836); p. 1]

• Peabody proposed to cover a variety of subjects: “The paper will be divided into several departments. The first will be for Poetry in prose and verse. The verse will not always be original, but we shall endeavor to have our selections always rare and beautiful. The prose will sometimes consist of translations from foreign literature, especially from the German. In this department we can count upon efficient assistance. Already, a friend has promised to translate for us Herder’s Leaves of Past Ages, each one of which is a little poem. Our second department will be for Miscellaneous Literature. This will consist of morsels of biography, history, and science; with tales of fiction, and anomalous articles. The third department will be devoted to Morals and Religion. Here, Essays on various branches of moral and intellectual self-culture will come in, and practical lessons for Sunday Schools. This department the Editor will consider peculiarly her own. … The fourth department will occasionally be filled with a Review, and when this is not the case, with critical notices of new publications, in which we hope to preserve generous and sincere principles of criticism. A fifth department will sometimes be added for an obituary notice, or for advertisements of books; we think it may be found a good place for advertising children’s books, more especially.” [“Prospectus.” 1 (Sept 1836); p. 1]

• Another editor admired Peabody’s careful planning: “Miss Peabody’s literary reputation and her fertility as a writer are sufficient commendation of what she here proposes to do. She has formed a plan for her Journal, and this is not the easiest thing in the world. She intends to divide it into departments—I. For Poetry in prose and verse. II. Miscellaneous Literature. III. Morals and Religion. IV. Review or Critical notices of New Publications. We hope that what is so well designed will be carried into effect.” [Christian Register 10 Sept 1836]

• The editor of the Portsmouth Journal approved of the tone of the pieces: “We believe we can see through the secret design and veiled meaning of the ingenious compiler of [‘The History of Goodness’]. She feels, as we have so often felt the wants and errors of the age. she feels that the prevailing mode of instructing children by works of sense, is as ill-judged on the part of parents as it is injurious to the infantile mind. And in this story she is covertly sapping the foundation of these new-fangled systems of education, and carrying us back to the delicious dreams of our childhood. Indeed as we read the ‘History of Goodness’ a lapse of weary years seemed, as if by magic, to be cast aside, and there stole over us all those hallowed feelings of childhood, which were wont to be our companions when seated upon the wood-pile just as the sun was sinking, we grasped in one hand our pewter porringer of brown-bread & milk, and in the other the delicious tale (now alas! not to be purchased even for its weight in gold) of ‘Dame Partlett,’ or the still more delectable Melodies of ‘Mother Goose.’ We will not however longer detain the anxious reader from an enchanted portion which will lighten for him the burden of existence and throw him back into the magic circle which the talented authoress has covertly traced, in imitation of Gammer Gorton and Mother Hubbard.”

• The first issue was 8 pages, but a longer periodical was planned: “Subsequent numbers will have twelve pages each, allowing more room for all departments, than the present number affords. We have merely wished to indicate in this, the general plan. We have hardly done even this, however, in the Moral and Religious Department.” [“Notice.” 1 (Sept 1836); p. 8] Another editor had hopes: “The Family School is projected by Miss Peabody, the accomplished translator and editor of Degerando on Morals. It is intended to be continued in weekly numbers of twelve pages each, if sufficient patronage should be afforded. Of this we should hope there could be no doubt, so highly and justly are Miss Peabody’s qualifications estimated, for the conduct of a work of this description.” [“Quarterly List”; p. 549]

• Uncertainty and hope prompted publication of issue two: “The Publishers of the Family School, not being able to ascertain, by the mode indicated in the first number, how many subscribers there are, have concluded to send out a second number, to the same persons, and to some others, not by way of importunity, but with the request, that all who conclude not to become subscribers will please to return this and the preceeding number immediately.—The character of the subscription list, already obtained, is very gratifying and encouraging; but the number of subscribers is at present far too small to pay the expenses of a paper, without counting what it is desirable to pay to contributors.” [“Postscript to Prospectus.” 1 (Nov 1836); p. 9]

• The name of the magazine puzzled some; Peabody addressed the confusion in issue two and reiterated that the primary audience was teenaged girls: “The present opportunity will be taken to add, that some misapprehension of the plan of the paper seems to have grown out of its name. The word School has been supposed to indicate that its contents were exclusively for children. But this word was intended in as enlarged a sense as the word Family; and while it was promised that the youngest child should not be forgotten by the weekly visitor, the plan respected—not less—th[e] other members of the domestic circle as such. Especial regard indeed was had, in the plan, to those on the verge of responsible life. For no class of minds is so little written, as for girls, between the ages of fifteen and twenty, yet no age requires so much guidance and assistance. … Perhaps some may think that it is a heterogeneous mixture, to combine the plan of furnishing matter for this class of minds, with that of gathering it also for children. But the same principles of growth obtain in childhood and maturer life. The mind is always the same in its central principles; though the circle of external life may differ in its circumference. ‘The child is father of the man:’ and nothing is good amusement—even—for children, that may not be good philosophic food for their elders.” [“Postscript to Prospectus.” 1 (Nov 1836); pp. 9-10]

• Peabody tried passiveness in an attempt to bolster the list of subscribers: “All who do not return this number, within the month of November, to the Editor, will be considered subscribers.” [“Take Notice.” 1 (Nov 1836); p. 24] The first notice was less sure that there would be future issues: “All who do not return this and the preceeding number in three weeks will be considered as subscribers—and if the work goes on, will be supplied with the future numbers.” [1 (Nov 1836); p. 10]

• Issue three would wait for the subscription list: “The next number will be issued, and the pay called for as soon as the subscription list is made up.” [1 (Nov 1836); p. 24] Issue two was advertised in Salem, Massachusetts, until at least the second week of Dec, with the warning that “Any persons wishing to encourage this Work are requested to subscribe immediately, as on the filling up of the subscription list its continuance must depend.” [Advertisements of issue two.] No third issue appears to have been published.

relevant information:

• Marshall calls the work “a family magazine with a Transcendental flavor.” Most of the works were written by Peabody and her family. [p. 328]

• The first issue was larded with editorial paragraphs explaining why some pieces were selected.

• Marshall notes that Peabody “sent the magazine to a wide circle of associates with the advisory that she would assume they wished to subscribe unless the publication was returned to her by mail.” It didn’t work. [p. 543]

source of information: AAS catalog; AASHistPer, series 2; Marshall; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• “The Family School.” Boston Weekly Messenger [Boston, Massachusetts] 8 Sept 1836; p. 3.

• “The Family School.” New-Bedford Mercury [New Bedford, Massachusetts] 9 Sept 1836; p. 2.

• “The Family School.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 15 (10 Sept 1836); p. 146.

• “The Family School.” Salem Gazette [Salem, Massachusetts] 13 Sept 1836; p. 3.

• “The Family School.” The Portsmouth Journal [Portsmouth, New Hampshire] 17 Sept 1836; p. 1.

• “Quarterly List of New Publications.” The North American Review 43 (Oct 1836); pp. 547-552.

• advertisement of issue two. Salem Gazette [Salem, Massachusetts] 11 Nov 1836; p. 3.

• “The Family School. No. 2.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 15 (12 Nov 1836); pp. 182-183.

• “The Family School.” New-Bedford Mercury [New Bedford, Massachusetts] 18 Nov 1836; p. 1.

• advertisement of issue two. Salem Gazette [Salem, Massachusetts] 28 Nov 1836; p. 4.

• advertisement of issue two. Salem Gazette [Salem, Massachusetts] 1 Dec 1836; p. 4.

• advertisement of issue two. Salem Gazette [Salem, Massachusetts] 6 Dec 1836; p. 4.

• Megan Marshall. The Peabody Sisters. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 2005; p. 328, notes p. 543

Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue; 3 Sept 1836-Dec 1836 • Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue, and Literary Casket ; Jan-after 5 Aug 1837

edited by: Isaac Harrington, jr • after 5 Aug 1837, assisted by Charles H. McLellan

published: Poughkeepsie, New York: Isaac Harrington, jr; publisher on Main, corner of Liberty St., 1836. Also, Poughkeepsie, New York: Jackson & Schram.

frequency: semimonthly

description: 1836: 8 pp.; quarto; price, $1/ year

• after 5 Aug 1837: Price, $1.25

• May not have been published after 5 Aug 1837

relevant information: Interestingly, both publications absorbed by the Guide were intended for adults.

relevant quotes:

• The publication apparently lived up to its title: “So far as we can discover from the two numbers which have been issued, the single object of the publication is expressed in the title. Its tendency is to inspire sentiments favorable to morality, and a deep veneration for experimental and practical piety. To all such auxiliaries in the cause of piety and virtue against the licentiousness of infidel principles, which are insidiously sown with an unsparing hand, we heartily wish success.” [“Youth’s Guide”]

The Poughkeepsie Casket announced its demise: “We commenced the Casket as an experiment, and announced our determination to continue it one year let its support be what it might.—This we have done … Change in our business relations likewise render it judicious for us to lighten our duties that we may perform a certain portion to better advantage …. We have disposed of our interest in the Casket to Isaac Harrington, Jun., Editor and Proprietor of the ‘Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue,’ with which it will be hereafter identifed under the name of the ‘Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue, and Literary Casket.’ That paper will be forwarded to the subscribers of the Casket, leaving it for them to decide whether they will continue their patronage or not …. The sole object of that publication is to disseminate among youth the principles of virtue and religion, and to point out to them the high road to honor and respectability.” [“To Our Patrons”]

• Under its new title, the Guide had monumental intentions: “To instil into the juvenile mind, such principles as will guide it safely through the devious paths of human existence, is an object of no ordinary magnitude—of absorbing interest—arduous, difficult, solemn, and highly responsible. The dearest hopes of this and every other nation, are based upon the piety, virtue, and intelligence—and their greatest fears, upon the vice and ignorance of their youth. That a paper devoted in the interests of the rising generaiton is much needed, no one will pretend to deny. If our paper is not such a one as is best adapted to these objects, we shall at all times be happy to hear any suggestions for its improvement. We shall endeavor to inculcate those noble and elevated principles of honor, justice, humanity, meekness, forbearance, brotherly kindness, ‘long suffering and slowness to anger,’ a love of virtue for virtue’s sake, and a high regard for those moral and religious obligations which form the basis of all that we hold dear to us as rational beings. Particular care will be taken to awaken and cultivate those finer feelings and tender emotions, which so much sweeten the cup of social enjoyment—those little endearments—those sympathies and affections that form the very LIFE-BLOOD and HEART-STRINGS of all human society, without which man is but a ferocious BEAST of prey. Pride, false aggrandizement, and popular excesses of every kind will be rebuked, and vice and immorality reprobated. All sectarianism and political discussion will be discarded. Under the head of Cabinet of Science, we shall give an abstract of the natural sciences—Mineralogy, Geology, Conchology, Botany, Philosophy, &c. &c. … These considerations will naturally present themselves to every person who shall read this prospectus: 1st. are the various objects of the paper good? 2d. Will this paper promote these objects? 3d. If the paper be put in one side, and $1,25 in the other, of the scale of human events, which will preponderate?” [“Prospectus”]

• The Guide also was a source of charitable donations: “ALL the PROCEEDS of this paper, during the present year [1837], above paying its reasonable expenses, will be expended in EDUCATING POOR CHILDREN AND IN RELIEVING THE DISTRESSED. Now we appeal directly to the benevolence, the sympathy, the intelligence, and the good moral sense of the nations, whether this paper is worthy of support. WILL YOU, OR WILL YOU NOT SUSTAIN IT?” [“Prospectus”]

absorbed: The Branch ; 1835-1836

The Poughkeepsie Casket ; 1836

source of information: Lyon; OCLC; notices, etc., below


• “Poughkeepsie Street Directory for 1836.” Poughkeepsie Journal [Poughkeepsie, New York] 7 Sept 1836; p. 2.

• The Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue. Poughkeepsie Journal [Poughkeepsie, New York] 14 Sept 1836; p. 2.

• “The Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue.” Christian Advocate and Journal 11 (30 Sept 1836); p. 22.

• “To Our Patrons.” The Poughkeepsie Casket 1 (3 Dec 1836); p. 199.

• “Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue, and Literary Casket.” The Poughkeepsie Casket 1 (17 Dec 1836); p. 203.

• “Prospectus for issuing the Second Vol. of the Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue.” Poughkeepsie Journal [Poughkeepsie, New York] 9 Aug 1837; p. 3.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 116-121.

The Missionary News ; 1837-

cover/masthead: 1837

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; printed at J. Thompson’s Printing Office

frequency: monthly

description: 8 pp.; page size, 10.5″ h

• July 1837 is vol 1 #4

• Religious focus

relevant quote: The paper’s nonsectarian focus made for some awkwardness: “The Missionary News.—In a late number of a little paper with this title, published in this city, we find the following editorial remarks—‘We labor not as Baptists, not as sectarians, not as the members of a party, not as bigots, but as Christians, as those honestly striving to promote a knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus.’ Now, without designing to give offence, or to discourage any laudable attempts of the young disciples who conduct this paper to do good, we feel disposed to point out the impropriety of such language as the above. We do not suppose it was intended to convey the idea that Baptists are not Christians, but bigots, striving to promote sectarian views, rather than the truth as it is in Jesus; and yet this is the obvious charge implied by the language. Young writers should be careful to employ such language as will express their ideas clearly, and neither more nor less than what they design to say.” [Monthly Paper]

source of information: AAS catalog; AASHistPer

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• “The Missionary News.” Monthly Paper of the Baptist General Tract Society 2 (Sept 1837); p. 42.

Ke Kumu Kamalii (The children’s teacher) ; Ian-Det (Jan-Dec) 1837

edited by: R. Tinker

published: Honolulu, Hawaii: Mission Press

frequency: monthly

description: 12 pp.; page size, 7.5″ h. Price, 25¢/ year

• Circulation: 4000 copies/ month [Spaulding; Diell]

• Each issue probably had a cover with an illustration.

• Hawaiian-language periodical

• Religious focus

source of information: AAS catalog; OCLC; AASHistPer; online auction catalog, Bonhams, 19 Oct 2009

available: AASHistPer, series 2


• E. Spaulding. “Origin and Progress of Writing Among the Natives of the Sandwich Islands.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 17 (27 Jan 1838); p. 16.

• John Diell. “Sketch of Honolulu.” Nantucket Inquirer [Nantucket, Massachusetts] 27 Feb 1839; p. 1.

The Juvenile Lyceum ; 21 Jan 1837-after 25 April 1837?

published: New Brunswick, New Jersey: Juvenile Temperance Society of New-Brunswick.

frequency: weekly: Saturday

description: Page size, 11.75″ h; price, 50¢/ year • Newspaper format

• Proceedings of a juvenile lyceum “which meets weekly for declamation, discussion, and the reading of compositions. It has sixtyfour [sic] members.” [Annals]

source of information: Annals; OCLC

bibliography: Notice. American Annals of Education. 7 (Feb 1837); p. 96. online

Youth’s Lyceum ; April-after Sept 1837

published: New Lisbon, Ohio: Columbiana County Lyceum Association; printed by J. Frost

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 8.66″ h

source of information: OCLC

Youth’s Cabinet ; 28 April 1837-17 Aug 1838, 25 April 1839-1842 • The Youth’s Cabinet (also New-York Teacher’s Lyceum, 1843); 1843-1848 • Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet ; Jan 1849-1855 • Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet and Uncle Frank’s Dollar Magazine ; Jan 1856-March 1857

cover/masthead: 1838-1839 | 1841 | 1846-1851 | 1851-1857 | 1856

edited by: 1837, Nathaniel Southard

• 1837-Aug 1838, Harvey Newcomb

• 25 April 1838-1842, Nathaniel Southard

• early 1842, William Bradford?

• Oct 1842-Dec 1843, Ralph Hunt?

• until Dec 1845, Myron Finch

• Jan 1846-March 1857, Francis Chandler Woodworth

• May 1854-March 1857, Susanna Newbould

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Isaac Knapp, 8 April 1837-Aug 1838; Knapp at 25 Cornhill. • Boston, Massachusetts: N.p., 25 April 1839-1841; publisher at 25 Cornhill.

• New York, New York: Nathaniel Southard, 25 April 1839-1842. Publisher at 9 Spruce St., 25 April 1839-29 April 1841; at 126 Fulton St., 6 May 1841-30 Dec 1841.

• New York, New York: Office of the New York Evangelist, July-Oct 1842?

• New York, New York: Ralph Hunt, Oct 1842-Dec 1843.

• New York, New York: Myron Finch & Charles Parker, 1844 or 1845-end 1845.

• New York, New York: David Austin Woodworth, Jan 1846-March 1857.

frequency: 28 April 1837-Aug 1838: weekly: Friday; 1 vol/ year • 25 April 1839-30 Dec 1841: weekly: Thursday; 1 vol/ year

• 1842-1845: biweekly

• Jan 1846-March 1857: monthly


• 28 April 1837-23 Dec 1841: 4 pp.; quarto; page size, 14″ h x 10″ w

• 30 Dec 1841-1845: 8 pp.; quarto

• Jan 1846-1851: 32 pp.; octavo

• Jan 1852-1855: 48 pp.; duodecimo

• Jan-Feb 1856: 36 pp.; octavo

• Price, 28 April 1837-March 1857, $1/ year; 1840: to Canada, 4 copies, $5

• 28 April 1837-17 Aug 1838, 25 April 1839-1842: anti-slavery focus

• No issues, 24 Aug 1838-18 April 1839: “The Cabinet will be suspended for a few weeks; when the proprietor hopes to make some arrangement, by which it may appear in an improved dress.” (17 Aug 1838; p. 63)

• Circulation: 28 April 1837, 0: “It had not a subscriber at its commencement.” [Liberator 27 Oct 1837] • 27 Oct 1837, 580 [“Youth’s Cabinet.” Liberator 7 (27 Oct 1837); p. 175.]; (from magazine): 9 May 1839, “From April 25 [1839] to the present time, the average subscription has been for eight copies a day ….” [2 (9 May 1839): 74] • 18 July 1839, 1346 • 22 Nov 1839, 3000: “It has six or seven paying subscribers in Kentucky, and is read weekly in hundreds of families where anti-slavery reading goes in no other form.” [“Youth’s Cabinet.” Liberator 22 Nov 1839] • 1840, just under 4000; 1848, 8000.

• Vol 3 began with 2 Jan 1840

• New series, vol 1 (Jan 1846)-vol 6 (1851); new series, vol 1 (Jan 1852)-vol 6 (March 1857)

• The issue for 7 Jan 1841 had a special “holiday dress” in the shape of a title page with 16 small wood engravings and a reminder to subscribers to handle their paper carefully: “Hold! boys and girls. Don’t handle me till I am covered, stitched in the back, and cut open at the top.”

• Volumes of Woodworth’s often were published as separate books, under various titles: Woodworth’s Cabinet of Curious Things; Woodworth’s Miscellany of Entertaining Knowledge; Woodworth’s American Miscellany of Entertaining Knowledge; Uncle Frank’s Pleasant Pages for the Fireside

relevant information:

• Under Southard, the Cabinet was an anti-slavery periodical. Its prospectus was printed in the Liberator in May 1837.

• Subscribers to the Liberator received copies of the Cabinet in April 1837.

• In 1838, the Cabinet joined the list of abolitionist periodicals burned by outraged Southerners. [“More Light Diffused at the South!”]

• Achieving a complete run of the paper seems to have been difficult from the beginning: Southard began advertising for a copy of issue #1 six months after its printing. [Liberator 27 Oct 1837] The next month, he added issue #5 to his request. [Liberator 24 Nov 1837]

• The contents for a few issues were published elsewhere: issue 3, in the Liberator, 19 May 1837; issue 20, in the Liberator, 15 Sept 1837; issue 21, in the Liberator, 22 Sept 1837; issue 26, in the Liberator, 27 Oct 1837.

• A long criticism of the Literary Messenger [“Criticism.” 3 (18 June 1840): 99.] resulted in some literary sparring with the Messenger’s understandably indignant editor. [“ ‘Criticism’ Criticised” 1 & 2]

• The issue for 11 March 1841 was a regular issue with a 4-page extra detailing the 20 Feb 1841 argument before the U. S. Supreme Court of the case of the Amistad captives; 10,560 copies were printed, of which 1000 were offered for sale at 1¢ each or 50¢ per 100. The Cabinet had begun following the case in 1839.

• The Cabinet was one of only a handful of periodicals that William A. Alcott felt comfortable recommending to young readers in 1844. [p. 115]

• Edgar Allan Poe helped his office boy, Alexander Taylor Crane, publish a poem titled “Water” in the 1 May 1845 issue of the Cabinet; Poe apparently smoothed out the last line and suggested that Crane submit it to the paper. [See Edgar Allan Poe: Complete Poems, ed. Thomas Olive Mabbott. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1969; pp. 491-492.]

• Feeling that for years the more “orthodox” religious newspapers had treated his own religious paper shabbily, in 1845 the editor of the Universalist Union took Myron Finch—then editing the Cabinet and the New York Evangelist—to task after Finch was unhelpful to a visitor looking for the Union’s office—after all, the Union had been sent free of charge to the Evangelist for many years. In fact, the Union’s editor took Finch to task in three separate issues, in longer and longer pieces which got more and more heated, until the Union’s editor decided to quit providing the paper to Finch’s evidently ungrateful office. [See the Universalist Union: “A Characteristic of Reputed Orthodoxy”; “That ‘Characteristic of Reputed Orthodoxy’ ”; “N. Y. Evangelist and Union and Messenger”.]

• Cost of paper, 1848: $100/ month

• Jan-Feb 1856: The Cabinet allied with Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, with each magazine a duplicate of the other.

• Probably the most popular piece to appear in the Cabinet was “The Song of the Snow Bird,” words by Francis C. Woodworth and music by Susanna Newbould. [3 (Jan 1853); pp. 22-24] Into the 1920s, perplexed adults wrote to editors of periodicals, attempting to piece together the stanzas their parents had sung to them decades earlier.

relevant quotes:

• From the prospectus: “It is the design of this paper to please the fancy, enlighten the understanding, and improve the heart,—to lead its readers to the Revealed Will of our heavenly Father, as the only safe guide, to refer to the example of Christ as worthy of constant imitation, and to point out to children the ‘narrow way’ which will lead them, unharmed, through life’s toilsome journey, to a heavenly home. It is devoted to the interests of no sect or party in the great family of Christ’s followers. As its object is the promotion of useful intelligence, pure morality, and undefiled religion, it will steadily oppose slavery, intemperance, war, and every thing which is contrary to the glory of God, peace on earth, and good will to men. The paper is made up of a variety of short articles, arranged under some of the following heads:—The Picture Gallery; The Young Philosopher; Selections; Anti Slavery; Peace and War; Temperance; Moral; Religious; Sabbath Schools; The Light-House; Natural History; Miscellany; Obituary; Poetry, &c. &c.” [Liberator 13 Oct 1837]

• Finances were tight from the beginning: “Notwithstanding the severe pressure in the money market, and the general cry of distress that pervades the land, yet the publishers of [the Cabinet] have resolved to go forward, depending solely upon the zeal and public spirit of the community.” [Liberator 19 May 1837]

• The Cabinet was described in issue #27 of Slave’s Friend: “Mr. Nathaniel Southard, of Boston, is the editor of a little newspaper, called the Youth’s Cabinet. It is about as large as one of the penny newspapers, and is printed every Friday. It is devoted to “LIBERTY, PEACE, TEMPERANCE, PURITY, and TRUTH.” The price is one dollar a year. Many of my readers know Mr. Southard. He is the editor of the Anti-Slavery Almanac. He is an Anti-Slavery man—he won’t drink rum, he won’t cheat, he won’t swear, he won’t fight, he won’t lie, he won’t buy or sell men, and he does not want his little readers to do any of these things. What a character they will have if they do as he says. Let us see: A Temperance Child. A Peace Child. A Modest Child. An Anti-Slavery Child. No Cheat. No Liar. That is the child for me! ” [3 (#27): inside back cover (cover page 3)]

• The Cabinet was suspended from 24 Aug 1838-18 April 1839: “The Cabinet will be suspended for a few weeks; when the proprietor hopes to make some arrangement, by which it may appear in an improved dress.” [2 (17 Aug 1838); p. 63] However, as Southard wrote in April 1839, “No such arrangement was made. A few weeks ago, having some business in Boston, I learned that there was great inquiry for the Cabinet. One member of the Massachusetts Legislature took several opportunities to urge me to resume it. He said he never knew the stopping of any paper, to occasion so much inquiry and apparent regret.” [2 (25 April 1839); p. 66] When the paper was resumed, its original prospectus was printed on the first page of the issue (25 April 1839).

• Notices of the return of the Cabinet emphasized its anti-slavery elements: “Since the Slave’s Friend has been discontinued, something of this kind is much called for,” the Liberator noted. [“The Youth’s Cabinet.” Liberator 12 April 1839] The Christian Reflector became positively bellicose: “We are pleased to see Brother N. Southard, the Author of ‘the Anti-Slavery Almanac,’ again in the field, rallying youthful hosts to the great battle. If the United States army has its ‘West Point,’ Anti-slavery needs its corresponding ‘training ground’ for both Officers and Soldiers among the prospective citizens of the republic. Br. S. is a good instructor in the tactics of this holy and benevolent and noble cause. Let him have many ‘Cadets.’ ” [“Youth’s Cabinet Revived”]

• Southard apparently tapped abolitionists and their family members for material, among them Mary I. Torrey, wife of abolitionist Charles Turner Torrey; writing to her jailed husband, Mary gave a glimpse of the process: “Ever since I wrote you last, I have been quite unwell …. Making no calculations for being sick, I had previously accepted proposals from the publishers of ‘Youth’s Cabinet’, to become one of the regular contributors to that paper. I engaged to send them a communication at a given time, and I felt my honor was depending upon the fulfilment of the engagement promptly. But my head was in such a state, that you could have no letter, and they could have no article. At length, by perseverance, writing a little while, and lying down a great while, I have succeeded in sending them the communication, though it was not in season for publication in the No. I intended.—The publisher was very kind, though I disappointed him, and wrote me he liked the article, and forwarded the money in the letter. This was quite unexpected. I did not expect to receive my pay till the end of the year.” Mary had other offers, which she did not always feel able to accept: “Last week I received a proposal to write for the Literary Emporium, published in New York city. I do not think I shall be able to furnish anything for a work of that character. It is not denominational, but rather too literary for one whose head is in such a state as mine has been lately, not to say anything of my incompetency when I am well.” [Letter, July 1845; pp. 253-254]

• Like all editors, Southard exchanged with other periodicals (thus gaining a supply of material to reprint); when other editors didn’t cooperate, he found other ways: “Being desirous of seeing those juvenile papers whose editors refuse to exchange, I will send the Cabinet to any one who will regularly forward the Youth’s Companion or Parley’s Magazine, directed Youth’s Cabinet, N. Y.” [“To Parents and Friends of Youth.” Liberator 19 July 1839]

• The editor of The New-Yorker was not especially enamored: “The paper is not just what we could wish it either in neatness of appearance or in the avoidance of controverted topics, where-on it is more likely to provoke hostility than effect good; but we deem the design an excellent one, and deserving of encouragement.” [“Youth’s Cabinet.” The New-Yorker]

• Early in the Cabinet’s history, funds were precarious. Because issues were sent to subscribers whether they had paid or not, like all editors, Southard often had to beg for subscription money: “If you do not intend to continue the paper longer than you at first subscribed for it, always return the next paper you receive after your subscription expires. One subscriber received the paper nine weeks over a year, and then returned a copy; thus defrauding us out of 18 cents …. [T]he printer has had to wait more than a week for his money. Those subscribers who have neglected to pay when their money was due, have grieved the editor, wronged the printer, vexed his workmen, and have been the occasion of inflicting this long article upon prompt paying readers, who have a right to something more interesting. Finally, I don’t see how such persons can read the paper with any pleasure, when they feel they owe for it. I should think conscience would ring in their ears, ‘I have not paid for this,’ whenever they look at it.” Southard used his diatribe in the pages of the Liberator, suggesting readers “please substitute the word Liberator for ‘Cabinet’ ”. [“Startling Fact”] Two months later, Southard was still pleading for subscription money: “Abolitionists. … Are you not often disheartened, for fear we shall never effect the peaceful abolition of slavery? It can be done by very simple means, viz.: KEEP THE CHILDREN ABOLITIONISTS. … Are you doing all you can to exert a counteracting influence? The Youth’s Cabinet is the only juvenile periodical designed to educate the young to be THE LIBERATORS OF THE SLAVE.—This paper is in SUFFERING NEED OF HELP. It has no fund, and relies on no society or company for support.” [2 (3 Oct 1839); p. 159] Alarm on the part of would-be subscribers may have caused Southard to pull back the next month: “The appeal for the Cabinet inserted in the Liberator of the 8th inst. [note: a reprint of the appeal published in the Cabinet on 3 Oct 1839], may have led some to think that it is a sinking concern begging for charity. It is true, its receipts for the last six months have not quite equalled its expenses, but its subscription list has TREBLED IN NUMBERS.” [“Youth”s Cabinet.” Liberator 22 Nov 1839] In 1841, Southard supplemented his income as an editor by teaching: “Like most editors of Juvenile papers, we are compelled to find additional employment. Teaching a school seems the most appropriate. We have tried it eight weeks, and have been pleased to find it was not inconsistent with bodily health, or editorial labors.” [“The Editor’s Engagements.” 4 (14 Oct 1841); p. 166]

• On the change in publisher in 1842: “The encouragement with which the Juvenile department of the [New York] Evangelist was received, has led the proprietors to suppose that a paper specially adapted to the wants of Children and Youth, would be both useful and acceptable.—The YOUTH’S CABINET is therefore now issued from this office, and is prepared to aid parents in the moral and intellectual improvement of their households. … In order to place it within the reach of all our subscribers, we offer it for 50 cents a copy when taken in connection with the Evangelist, and the subscriptions of both papers are paid strictly in advance. When taken alone, $1 a year, in advance.” [“A Paper for the Young.” New York Evangelist 30 June 1842]

• In 1846, the Cabinet changed focus and format, under the editorship of Francis Chandler Woodworth: “This well-known periodical for the young has passed into the hands of a new proprietor, and will hereafter be issued monthly, in the form of a magazine, with a beautiful cover. Each number contains 32 large octavo pages, printed entire with new type, on fine paper.” [n.s. 1 (Feb 1846): inside front cover (cover page 2)] The first issue of the new series was published in Dec 1845. [“A Rich Magazine for the Young”]

• The Cabinet’s link with the Evangelist was dissolved, and notices and advertisements emphasized the “richness” and “costliness” of the new periodical: “The work, as it is more expensive, is much more valuable than formerly, as any one can be convinced by examination.” [“The Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 19 Jan 1846] “Considering the expensive and elegant style in which the work is published, every one must admit that it is the cheapest in this entire department of periodicals. … The volume, at the end of the year, will contain nearly 400 large octavo pages, illustrated with more than a hundred tasteful engravings, besides a costly vignette title-page ….” [“The Youth’s Cabinet for May.” New York Evangelist 23 April 1846]

• A description of the building which housed the Cabinet’s editorial offices offers an amusing look at density in New York in 1847: “Some idea may be formed of the density of business operations in New York … by examining a single building. We will take for example the narrow four-story building 111 Nassau st. which is cut up into numberless apartments so small as scarcely to afford breathing room. In this building there is the printing and publication office of the Sunday Atlas, the Christian Intelligencer, the Youth’s Cabinet, the Temperance Union, the Gazette of the Union, the Magazine of the Republic, the Volunteer, the Willow, the Calvary Token, the book office of Piercy & Howell, the job office of Searing & Cook, a stereotyper, a lithographer, a copper-plate printer, six lawyers, an oyster-cellar, two washer-women, a day worker; all conducted by separate individuals, having not the least interest in common.” [“Miscellaneous Items”]

absorbed: Youth’s Magazine ; Sept 1834-after May 1838 • The Missionary ; 1839 (announced in Cabinet, 3 Oct 1839) • The Mentor ; May 1850-Dec 1851?

merged with: Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

source of information: 1838-1856 vols & scattered issues; Dechert; Lyon; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3

excerpts online


• notice. The Graham Journal, of Health and Longevity, 1 (2 May 1837); p. 40. online

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 5 May 1837; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 10 May 1837; p. 3.

• Prospectus. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 12 May 1837; p. 79.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 19 May 1837; p. 3. online

• “Postage Again.” The Graham Journal of Health and Longevity 1 (23 May 1837); p. 64.

• notice. Advocate of Peace 1 (June 1837); p. 44.

• notice. The Liberator. 7 (9 June 1837); p. 95, col 6. online

• “Youth’s Cabinet. Contents of No. 20.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 15 Sept 1837; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Cabinet. Contents of No. 21.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 22 Sept 1837; p. 3.

• advertisement. Zion’s Herald 8 (27 Sept 1837); p. 155.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 13 Oct 1837; p. 4.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 27 Oct 1837; p. 175.

• “Youth’s Cabinet, No. 1, Wanted.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 24 Nov 1837; p. 190.

• E. H. Wilcox. Advertisement as agent for Youth’s Cabinet. New York Evangelist 8 (2 Dec 1837); p. 195.

• advertisement. The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, for 1838, ed. N[athaniel] Southard. Boston, Massachusetts: D. K. Hitchcock, 1837: back cover (cover page 4). Also, Proceedings of the Fourth New-England Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in Boston, May 30, 31, and June 1 and 2, 1837. Boston, Massachusetts: N.p., 1837: back cover (cover page 4).

• notice. The Slave’s Friend 3 (whole #27; 1838?): inside back cover (cover page 3).

• advertisement. New-York Evangelist 9 (7 July 1838); p. 107.

• “Military Training.” The Friend 11 (15 Sept 1838); pp. 393-394.

• “More Light Diffused at the South!” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 30 Nov 1838; p. 1.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 12 April 1839; p. 59.

• notice of resumption of publication. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 19 April 1839; p. 63.

• “Youth’s Cabinet Revived.” Christian Reflector 2 (3 May 1839); p. 71.

• review. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 10 May 1839; p. 74. Reprinted from the Herald of Freedom. online

• advertisement. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 31 May 1839; p. 88.

• “Literary Notices.” New York Evangelist 10 (1 June 1839); p. 87.

• notice. The Oberlin Evangelist [Oberlin, Ohio] 5 June 1839; p. 101. [google books]

• advertisement. Philanthropist 2 (2 July 1839): advertising section p. 2.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Oberlin Evangelist [Oberlin, Ohio] 17 July 1839; p. 125. [google books]

• N[athaniel] Southard. “To Parents and Friends of Youth.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 19 July 1839; p. 116.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 26 July 1839; p. 118.

• “Startling Fact.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 2 Aug 1839; p. 124.

• “Subscribers to the Missionary.” Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (3 Oct 1839); p. 158. online

• “To Abolitionists.” Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (3 Oct 1839); p. 159.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” Christian Reflector 2 (30 Oct 1839); p. 176.

• “To Abolitionists.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 8 Nov 1839; p. 178.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 22 Nov 1839; p. 187.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 13 Dec 1839; p. 199.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” Christian Reflector 2 (25 Dec 1839); p. 206.

• “Notices: Youth’s Cabinet.” Vermont Telegraph [Brandon, Vermont] 25 Dec 1839; p. 3.

• advertisement. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 27 Dec 1839; p. 208.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 10 (28 Dec 1839); p. 207.

• “ ‘Criticism’ Criticised.” Literary Messenger 1 (July 1840); p. 13.

• “ ‘Criticism’ Criticised—No. 2.” Literary Messenger 1 (Sept 1840); p. 30.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The New-Yorker 10 (14 Nov 1840); p. 141.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Lamoille Standard [Johnson, Vermont] 28 Nov 1840; p. 2.

• advertisement. The Emancipator 5 (31 Dec 1840); p. 143.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” Freeman and Messenger [Lodi, New York] 24 Dec 1840; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 12 (16 Jan 1841); p. 12.

• “Treasurer’s Quarterly Account.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 16 April 1841; p. 64.

• notice of change of address for Francis Bartlett. Christian Observer 20 (26 Nov 1841); p. 191.

• “Our Own Affairs.” New York Evangelist 13 (6 Jan 1842); p. 2.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 13 (6 Jan 1842); p. 4.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 13 (3 Feb 1842); p. 18.

• “Children and Youth.” New York Evangelist 13 (10 Feb 1842); p. 23.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 13 (17 Feb 1842); p. 26.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 13 (17 Feb 1842); p. 27.

• “A Paper for the Young.” New York Evangelist 13 (19 May 1842); p. 79.

• “A Paper for the Young.” New York Evangelist 13 (30 June 1842); p. 103.

• “Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 14 (7 Dec 1843); p. 195.

• notice. Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate. 15 (13 Sept. 1844); p. 295.

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844; p. 115. [google books]

• The editor of the Universalist Union feuds with Myron Finch: “A Characteristic of Reputed Orthodoxy” (26 April 1845); p. 384. “That ‘Characteristic of Reputed Orthodoxy’ ” (3 May 1845); pp. 391-393. “N. Y. Evangelist and Union and Messenger” (14 June 1845); pp. 485-489. [google books]

• Letter from Mary I. Torrey to Charles T. Torrey, July 1845. In J. C. Lovejoy. Memoir of Rev. Charles T. Torrey. Boston, Massachusetts: John P. Jewett & Co., 1847; p. 253.

• “A Rich Magazine for the Young.” New York Evangelist 16 (4 Dec 1845); p. 196.

• “Elegant New Magazine for 1846.” New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 20 Dec 1845; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 24 Dec 1845; p. 2.

• notice. New-York Evangelist 16 (25 Dec 1845); p. 206, col 5. online

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 429. [google books]

• “Editor’s Table.” American Agriculturist 5 (Jan 1846); p. 37.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 17 (1 Jan 1846); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 17 (19 Jan 1846); p. 19.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet.” New York Evangelist 17 (29 Jan 1846); p. 19.

• “Notices.” Alton Telegraph & Democratic Review [Alton, Illinois] 28 Feb 1846; p. 1.

• “The Youth’s Cabinet for May.” New York Evangelist 17 (23 April 1846); p. 68.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 17 (25 June 1846); p. 103.

• notice. American Phrenological Journal 8 (Aug 1846); p. 257.

• “Juvenile Books.” New York Evangelist 17 (19 Nov 1846); p. 188.

• “Present Book.” Christian Parlor Magazine, Dec 1846; p. 256.

• notice. Christian Advocate and Journal 21 (2 Dec 1846); p. 66.

• notice. Christian Advocate and Journal 21 (30 Dec 1846); p. 82.

• “Miscellaneous Items.” Christian Register 26 (6 Feb 1847); p. 23.

• review. The Literary World 1 (20 Feb 1847); p. 59. online

• “Notices.” (as Youth’s Magazine) Alton Weekly Telegraph [Alton, Illinois] 6 Aug 1847; p. 1.

• “A Good Chance for Good Agents.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 16 Feb 1848; p. 3.

• “Magazines at Reduced Prices!” New York Evangelist 19 (6 April 1848); p. 55.

• “Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet.” Episcopal Reader 26 (30 Dec 1848); p. 168.

• review. The Biblical Repository and Classical Review 5 (Jan 1849); p. 189. online

The New York Mercantile Union Business Directory … 1850. New York: S. French, L. C. & H. L. Pratt, 1850; p. 289. [google books]

• advertisement. National Era 6 (16 Dec 1852); p. 203.

• notice. New York Daily Times 29 Dec 1854; p. 2.

• “Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet.” The Advocate [Buffalo, New York] 4 Jan 1855; p. 3.

• “Editorial Chit-Chat with Readers.” Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, Jan 1856; pp. 34-35.

• notice of bound volume. New York Evangelist 28 (8 Jan 1857); p. 16.

• “Further from Long-Time Subscribers.” New York Evangelist 67 (13 Feb 1896); p. 34.

• “Chick-a-Dee-Dee.” New York Evangelist 69 (13 Jan 1898); p. 18.

• “The Snow Bird.” New York Evangelist 73 (31 Jan 1901); p. 27.

• “The Snow Bird.” New York Evangelist 72 (14 Feb 1901); p. 24.

• “The Observation Car.” New York Evangelist 72 (21 Feb 1901); p. 22.

• “Still the Snow Bird.” New York Evangelist 72 (28 Feb 1901); p. 22.

• “By the Way.” Outlook 136 (23 April 1924); p. 709.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 13-14, 27, 122-129, 138, 153, 156, 157, 159-160, 166, 183-187.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Youth’s Literary Messenger ; May 1837-April 1839

edited by: Jane Fraser

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; printed by William Staveley

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 36 pp.; octavo; page size, 7.75″ h; price, $1.50/ year

relevant information:

• The Messenger often included articles entirely in French.

• Much of the material was written by Jane Fraser.

• Subscribers in Charleston, South Carolina, received their issues from the shop of bookseller S. Babcock, on King Street.

relevant quotes:

• The Natchez Weekly Courier had high hopes for the magazine: “We recommend all parents of cultivated minds, who feel the importance that youth should early form correct tastes in literature, to subscribe for this work. Youth, whose literary studies are guided by the elegant pen of Miss Fraser, must, in graceful literature, imbibe the spirit of their teacher, and insensibly imitate a model combining such grace and strength, as will be exhibited to them through her writings.” [K.]

• The Messenger was intended for readers over age 10, “that interesting and momentous period of human existence when ceasing to think and to act, as mere children, youth, of both sexes, are preparing to enter on the vast arena that is opening before them.” [1 (May 1837); p. 2]

• “The subjects which may form the contents of the Youth’s Literary Messenger, shall be selected and treated accoring to the supposed various capacities and acquirements of its youthful reader; and, to accomplish this purpose, there must necessarily be a variety of style and matter. Some articles may be admitted which the more advanced and well-informed may be inclined to pass over as puerile and uninteresting; others, which may be thought above the standard of its more juvenile subscribers; but none will be allowed a place, in which the sentiment or expression shall render them unfit vehicles for the instruction and amusement of those for whom they are designed.” [1 (May 1837); p. 3]

• Closing remarks were … sprightly: “The present number of the Youth’s Literary Messenger completes the second year of its course; and we would fain hope the announcement that its term is ended, and that it here takes a final leave of its patrons, will be received with some regret. In the prospect of this separation, its faults, it may be, will be cast into the shade, or diminish in magnitude, while its small merits may be over-estimaged; as things of little value in possession, become dear; remembrance, when the melancholy words ‘no more,’ place an irrevocable barrier between us and their future enjoyment. ‘It is true,’ some half-relenting critic may say, ‘it was a sort of anomaly in literature, to which we would assign no appropriate station—too far advanced for childhood, too childish for maturer years; too grave for the gay, too light for the serious; too rational for the romantic, too religious for the worldling, too worldly for the pious; too orthodox for the sectarian; too liberal for the orthodox. In the endeavour to avoid exciting the passions it failed to awaken interest; and in steering a middle course, which enabled it to shun the rocks above water, it often went aground on the shoals. But though it was not good enough for commendation, it scarcely deserved censure; and judicious counsel might have done much to amend it, had its career been prolonged.’ Some gentle girl may perhaps exclaim—‘Oh! how sorry I am that we shall have no more letters from Julia and Lucy. How I wish Cornelia’s story had been finished; and that we had known more of dear little Virginia!’ And the kind grand-mamma, or the ancient maiden-aunt, attracted by the plaintive tone of the speaker, may put on her spectacles to read the last words of the Messenger; and, as she turns the page, may utter a few words of approbation, by way of epitaph. To each, and all of our readers, we bid a grateful and respectful farewell! The Messenger will no longer bring to them the result of our endeavours to instruct and amuse; but our wishes for their temporal and eternal welfare shall not be less fervent than when our efforts were especially devoted to promote their virtue and happiness.” [“To Subscribers.” 2 (April 1839); p. 428]

source of information: Gilder; AASHistPer; Lyon; AAS catalog; OCLC; NUC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3

• Page images at

• The Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] reprinted “It Was Too Late” [23 June 1845; p. 1]


• K. “Literary.” Natchez Weekly Courier [Natchez, Mississippi] 10 March 1837; p. 3.

• “New Publications.” The United States Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 6 May 1837; p. 2.

• “Editor’s Table.” The Journal of Belles Lettres (16 May 1837); p. 3.

• “The Turf-Seat Shade, or Notices of Books.” Southern Rose 5 (8 July 1837); p. 183.

• notice that issue 2 was received. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 13 June 1837; p. 2.

• “The Youth’s Literary Messenger.” Pennsylvania Inquirer [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 30 Sept 1837; p. 2.

• notice of Nov 1837 issue. Charleston Daily Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 6 Dec 1837; p. 2. And, 6 Dec 1837; p. 3.

• notice of Feb and March issues. Charleston Daily Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 13 April 1838; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Literary Messenger.” Charleston Daily Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 25 June 1838; p. 2.

• Jeannette L. Gilder. “An Early American Princess.” The Cosmopolitan 10 (Feb 1891); pp. 433-437.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 23, 130-133.

Sabbath School Messenger ; June 1837-16 April 1846

cover/masthead: June 1837-1840 | 1841-April 1842 | May 1844-16 April 1846

edited by: July 1837-1839, Dexter S. King • 1839-May 1841, Daniel Wise • 4 June 1841-20 May 1842, Rev. Edward Otheman • June 1842-1844, Dexter S. King • 2 May 1844-16 April 1846, Rev. Bradford K. Peirce

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Dexter S. King, at Methodist Sunday School Depository, July 1837-1839; publisher at 19 Washington St.

• Lowell, Massachusetts: E. A. Rice, 1841-1842?

• Boston, Massachusetts: Reid & Rand, 1843?-16 April 1846; publisher at 3 Cornhill

frequency: July 1837-April 1844, monthly • 1844-1845, semimonthly: Thursday; 24 issues/ year; 1 vol/ year

description: 1837-April 1844: 24 pp.; duodecimo; page size, 7.5″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• May 1844-16 April 1846: 4 pp.; page size, 12″ h x 9″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 30¢/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year; 30 copies, $5.40/ year; 60 copies, $9/ year; 120 copies, $15/ year

relevant information and quotes:

• Religious focus: Methodist; distributed mostly through Sunday schools in New England.

• On the founding: “In the spring of 1837, while one of the visiting committee of the Boston Sabbath School Society, we were one day returning from an examination of one of the schools, with a heart full of interest for an institution … when we were forcibly impressed with the thought that we ought to have a Sabbath school periodical. A glance was cast at our wants and at our means, and at once resolution said, WE WILL. As soon as working days came, the title was fixed upon and a prospectus issued. Then came the cheering response from all quarters, ‘Welcome the Sabbath School Messenger.’ Some of our readers will remember the pamphlet form. Our vignette was a lady in a pleasant shade, pointing several children and youth to a cross in the heavens enveloped in rays of light. It filled our eye then, and is beautiful still. Our motto was, ‘Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace.’ ” [King “Farewell”]

• Prospectus: “The Sabbath School Messenger will contain lessons of moral and religious instruction for children, hints on the organization and management of Sabbath Schools, and also remarks on the training of children, by both teachers and parents.” [“Prospectus”]

• The original price of the work was to be 75¢ per year, with agents to receive 25¢. With agents unwilling to take commissions for a religious paper, the price could be dropped to 50¢. [King “Sabbath”]

• On changing editors, 1841: “I [Dexter S. King] had anticipated much pleasure in renewing my former relation with the little readers of the Messenger. But when the time came to prepare the first number, my numerous cares prevented me. And so I supposed it might be in future. Well, thought I, the children must be taken care of, at any rate. So I began to look for an editor. And most fortunately I procured one, who has time, and ability, and a heart for the work. The Rev. Edward Otheman will be our editor, the present year.” [“The New Edition.” 5 (4 June 1841); p. 2]

• On changing editors, 1842: “The time has come when I [Edward Otheman] must bid my readers farewell; I mean as editor. We have passed through the year pleasantly together, and must in that time have become somewhat familiar. But now we part; you to renew acquaintance with the former editor, and I to lose myself from your notice amid other pursuits. I retire satisfied not so much with myself, as that I leave you in good hands. Br. Wise has the whole property and control of the Messenger …. You will see the description of his paper in another place, and a copy of his new paper will be exhibited to each Sabbath School, where our little friends will have a chance to see it. The first number will be sent in the bundle with this to your School.” [“My Farewell.” 5 (20 May 1842); p. 95]

• The Messenger changed its look in May 1844. The new vignette was designed by C. H. H. Billings and engraved by J. G. Chandler. [“Our New Head.” 8 (2 May 1844); p. 3.]

• The Messenger was one of only a handful of periodicals that William A. Alcott felt comfortable recommending to young readers in 1844. [p. 115]

• Until May 1844, the Messenger included pages for Sunday school teachers. When it changed its editor in May 1844, the publishers launched Sunday School Teacher and Bible Class Guide for adults, and shortened the Messenger. In the editor’s introduction in the Messenger, an imaginary subscriber complains that “you only give us half as large a paper as before, and I used to wish the Messenger held twice as much.” The smaller (and cheaper) paper, the editor explains, not only means that the paper now includes only material for children, but allows an opportunity for charity: “There is a poor little girl in your class, whose mother, perhaps, is a widow, and works very hard to support herself, and her family. She cannot afford to take the Messenger for her little girl. … Now the publishers have made the paper smaller, and ask you for it less half as much as before, so that you may have one yourself, and buy another for the poor, fatherless child, to make her heart glad and her face shine. Don’t forget the plan.” [“The New Editor to All His Little Readers.” 8 (2 May 1844); p. 3.]

• Circulation: June 1838, less than in 1837; July 1844, 10,000; Sept 1844, 13,000; April 1845, 14,000; Sept 1845, 17,000

• In 1845, the editor considered making the Messenger a weekly: “Several of our agents have made this request. How general is the desire? Will our friends, who can act as agents, take pains to iquire into this, and give us an early answer? … The expense, of course, will be about doubled.” [“The Messenger Every Week.” 8 (6 March 1845; p. 82] However, there wasn’t enough interest. [“The Little Messenger.” 8 (17 Aprl 1845; p. 95]

• Collecting subscription money was as difficult for this religious paper as it was for secular ones: “We again urge upon all who are indebted for the present year’s Messenger, the propriety of immediate payment. … If all who now take the Messenger, or Teacher, do not pay us, we shall be obliged to raise the price. We can afford it at present prices only on the above condition. Several hundred dollars are now due, on this year, and unless it is paid before the 1st of May, will seriously embarrass us. This is due in small sums, but in the aggregate, to us, is very considerable.” [“Money! Money!!” 8 (6 March 1845); p. 82.]

• Once the Sunday School Advocate became a major force in Methodist Sunday schools, the New England Conferences decided that two periodicals weren’t necessary, and the larger one should prevail.

absorbed by: Sunday School Advocate (5 Oct 1841-31 Dec 1921)

source of information: 1837-1846, scattered issues & bound vol; Zion’s Herald; Western Christian Advocate; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 2 & 3


• “Prospectus.” Zion’s Herald 8 (1 March 1837); p. 35, col 1-2.

• “Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (15 March 1837); p. 43.

• D[exter] S. King. “Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (22 March 1837); p. 47, col 1.

• W. Waterhouse. “The Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (29 March 1837); p. 50.

• Letter in support of Dexter S. King. Zion’s Herald 8 (5 April 1837); p. 55.

• T. R. Hawley. “The Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (12 April 1837); p. 59.

• “The Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (26 April 1837); p. 67.

• “Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (3 May 1837); p. 71.

• advertisement. Zion’s Herald 8 (10 May 1837); p. 76.

• “Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (31 May 1837); p. 87.

• notice. North American Review 45 (July 1837); p. 263.

• notice. Western Christian Advocate 4 (4 Aug 1837); p. 59.

• Dean. “Sabbath School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 8 (27 Sept 1837); p. 154.

• “Sabbath School Messenger, No 2.” [Requests for copies of issue 2] Zion’s Herald 8 (11 Oct 1837); p. 163.

• Eleazer Smith. Letter. Zion’s Herald 9 (27 June 1838); p. 102.

• D. W. “Shall the ‘Sabbath School Messenger’ Be Sustained?” Zion’s Herald 9 (27 June 1838); p. 104, col 3.

• D[aniel] Wise, T. C. Peirce, and E. Otheman. “Shall the Sabbath School Messenger Live or Die?” Zion’s Herald 9 (28 Nov 1838); p. 189, col 3-4.

• “A Clerical Libeller.” Catholic Telegraph 12 (2 Dec 1843); p. 381.

• advertisement. Zion’s Herald and Wesleyan Journal 15 (22 May 1844); p. 83.

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844; p. 115. [google books]

• “The Messenger.” Sabbath School Messenger 9 (19 Feb 1846); pp. 79-80.

• Dexter S. King. “Farewell.” Sabbath School Messenger 9 (16 April 1846); p. 94.

• “Bradford Kinney Peirce.” In Matthew Simpson. Cyclopaedia of Methodism, 5th rev. ed. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883; p. 700. [google books]

• Daniel Wise. “Dr. B. K. Peirce and the Sunday School Messenger.” Zion’s Herald 67 (31 July 1889); p. 244, col 7.

Child’s Companion ; 1838-Tenth month 1839

frequency: monthly

published: Skaneateles, New York: J. Tallcot.

description: Page size, 5″ h • eight issues

relevant quote: Tallcot apparently stopped publishing the Companion after moving to a town with no printer, as he explains in a letter dated 8 Tenth month 1839: “Our children have left and are leaving Skaneateles, and we being located twenty miles from our Monthly Meeting, and connections [in Ledyard], have moved [to Ledyard] to close our days. … I have devoted much of my leisure time in framing and publishing little works for children, much to my own relief and satisfaction; and have received many assurances of their having been acceptable, especially in the west, where they have been instrumental in starting a number of First-day schools. I am now remote from any printing office, and shall discontinue my editorial labors, and shall shortly mail the last number of the Child’s Companion ….” [Tallcot; pp. 316-317]

relevant information:

• Tallcot could provide copies of the Companion as late as 1844. [Tallcot; p. 335]

• Both the Visitant and the Companion were reprinted in book form in 1853 (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Henry Longstreth). Tallcot instigated the reprinting: “I have continued to feel such a deep concern for the children of Friends and others, that I have procured a new edition of the ‘Friendly Visitant,’ in two volumes of about two hundred and sixty pages each. Of the first volume, our book committee have distributed among young families about two hundred and fifty in our Yearly Meeting.” [Tallcot; pp. 343-344]

continues: The Friendly Visitant for Parents and Children ; 1833-1837 (a family paper)

perhaps continued by: The Acorn (1839-1840)

source of information: NUC; OCLC; North


• notice of reprints. Friends’ Review 6 (22 Jan 1853); p. 298.

• Joseph Tallcot. Memoirs of Joseph Tallcot. Auburn: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1855. [google books]; pp. 305-306, 317.

• S. N. D. North. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. Washington, District of Columbia: 1884; p. 400.

Sunday School Children’s Magazine ; 1838

published: Baltimore, Maryland: Charles Hollis

frequency: monthly

description: 16 pp.; price: 25¢/ year; 23 copies, $5/ year; 52 copies, $10/ year

• Proposed; probably never published

• Title unclear.

• Religious focus

relevant information: Advertised in The Baltimore Sun, 4 June-23 Aug 1838.

relevant quote: Proposal: “Sunday School Children’s Magazine.—This work is intended to be published monthly, each part to contain 16 pages, making yearly, a volume of 192 pages. The terms are as follows:—Single copy, 25 cents per annum. 23 copies, $5 per annum. 52 copies, $10 do.—in all cases, payable in advance. The terms, as may be seen, are very low, and we think every school can take from 25 to 50 copies. We feel assured it will be found useful and interesting. Each number will be illustrated with one or two cuts and every pains [sic] taken to have such matter as will suit the young. All orders to be directed to CHARLES HOLLIS, and POST PAID, or left at the Depository, corner of SOUTH CALVERT street and LOVELY LANE.” [proposal]

source of information: proposal


• proposal. The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 4 June 1838; p. 3.

Youth’s Literary Messenger ; 1838

edited by: William G. Bishop

published: Albany, New York

frequency: monthly

description: 24 pp.; $1/ yeaar

relevant information:

• proposed; probably not published

• In 1838, Bishop was 16 or 17 years old.

source of information: New-Yorker


• “Juvenile Enterprise.” The New-Yorker 5 (25 Aug 1838); p. 367.

The Children’s Catholic Magazine ; March 1838-Feb 1840

edited: Cornelius H. Gottsberger • Felix Varela

published: New York, New York: Cornelius H. Gottsberger, March 1838-Feb 1840.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 5.75″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• Circulation: 13,000

• Religious focus: Catholic

relevant quotes:

• From the prospectus: “To Parents. The object we have in view in presenting this work to you, and soliciting your patronage, is the instruction of the Juvenile portion of the Catholic community, not only in religion, but every thing that will tend to benefit them at present or hereafter—‘to teach the young idea how to shoot,’ and by careful culture to make their youthful minds bloom in knowledge. Each number will contain a fine engraving, and a biography of some distinguished Catholic, whether living or dead, besides moral and religious tales, extracts, poetry, dialogues, and miscellany; all of which will be so agreeably blended together as to be both pleasing and entertaining, at the same time instructing and interesting. Their moral and religious duties will be familiarly and clearly explained. But, it were useless for us to enlarge on this topic: whatever is taught will be with a strict regard for, and consonant with, the doctrines of our Holy Church—and if she is our guide, we cannot go wrong.” [in Boston Pilot 24 Feb 1838]

• Boston, Massachusetts, proved to be a tough sell: “We are sorry to say that the patronage extended to [the magazine], is very limited, there being only about twenty subscribers in this city. There should be, at least, one hundred.” [Boston Pilot 21 July 1838]

• An early critic split some religious hairs: “We are glad to see our Roman Catholic brethren emulating the Protestants in popular efforts for the diffusion of Christian knowledge. Each number, we are told, is to contain the biography of some distinguished Catholic living or dead. The first number contains a life of Alfred the Great. Is there not a want of ingenuousness in this use of the word ‘Catholic?’ Alfred was indeed a Catholic, but he was, as every body knows, an English Catholic. The impression, however, tacitly conveyed by the Magazine, is, that he was a Roman Catholic.” [Churchman 24 Feb 1838]

• The New York Daily Herald may have been sarcastic or may have been admiring: “The Children’s Catholic Magazine contains a number of pious fairy tales.”

• The issues for July and Aug 1838 included criticisms of geographies used in schools: “[W]e made some remarks regarding the books in use in our schools—of their partial statements, and of the falsehoods that were intended to be taught young Catholics and others.” xxx[“Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 16 Aug 1838]

• A name change seems to have been contemplated in 1839: “The magazine will be continued next year, and the name will be altered to the ‘Young Catholics’ Magazine.’ One of the principal reasons is, there is a magazine, ‘The Children’s Magazine,’ now published here, and much confusion is caused by the direction of letters, and otherwise.” [“Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 5 Jan 1839] Notices in 1839, however, refer to the magazine by the original name.

• “This is a small monthly periodical published in the city of New-York ‘under the supervision of the Very Rev. Felix Varela.’ It is ably, and ingenuously [sic] conducted, and well calculated to inculcate the sectarian principles it espouses, which are professedly those of the church of Rome. … The work mentioned, frequently contains excellent youthful productions, untinctured with sectarianism … ” [“Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Juvenile Depository Feb 1839]

• The editor of The Knickerbocker criticized the magazine’s religious focus, specifically “an original fragment touching the Catholic religion, wherein it was assumed, that all who opposed it, were lost to every sense of virtue, and were influenced solely by worldly or selfish motives. This idea of exclusive holiness, has doubtless done more injury to the cause of religion, in engendering bitterness and strife between christians of different modes of belief and worship, than any other cause whatever.” [notice. The Knickerbocker]

• Gottsberger apparently financed the magazine: “[I]t was founded by a young man, Cornelius H. Gottsberger, and carried on mainly at his own expense.” [Middleton]

continued by: Young Catholic’s Magazine ; Dec 1841-1842?

source of information: Depository ; OCLC; Middleton


• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Evening Post [New ork, New York] 16 Feb 1838; p. 2.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Churchman 7 (24 Feb 1838); p. 3.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Boston Pilot 1 (24 Feb 1838); p. 39.

• The Children’s Catholic Magazine contains. New York Daily Herald [New York, New York] 10 April 1838; p. 2.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Boston Pilot 1 (12 May 1838); p. 126.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Evening Post [New York, New York] 2 June 1838; p. 2.

• advertisement. The Catholic Telegraph 7 (7 June 1838); p. 207.

• notice of June issue. Boston Pilot 1 (9 June 1838); p. 159.

• advertisement. The Catholic Telegraph 7 (12 June 1838); p. 247.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Boston Pilot 1 (21 July 1838); p. 206.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 7 (16 Aug 1838); p. 282.

• notice. The Catholic Telegraph 7 (18 Oct 1838); p. 358.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Boston Pilot 1 (17 Nov 1838); p. 342.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 7 (5 Jan 1839); p. 399.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” The Juvenile Depository, or Youth’s Mental Casket 1 (Feb 1839); pp. 285-287.

• notice. The Knickerbocker 13 (May 1839); p. 464.

• “Children’s Catholic Magazine.” Publid Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 6 June 1839; p. 2.

• query #5 in “Who Knows.” The American Catholic Historical Researches 7 (Oct 1890); p. 19.

• Thomas C. Middleton. “Catholic Periodicals Published in the United States.” Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. N.p.: American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, 1908; vol 19, p. 35. [google books]

• Joseph and Helen McCadden. Father Varela: Torch Bearer from Cuba. United States Catholic Historical Society Monograph Series #27. New York: United States Catholic Historical Society, 1969; pp. 102, 106, 113.

The Youth’s Penny Paper ; May 1838-after Feb 1839

edited by: Theodore Dwight, jr

published: New York, New York: E. French; publisher at 146 Nassau St., July 1838

frequency: weekly: Friday

description: 4 pp.; large octavo; prices: 1¢/ week; 12.5¢/ three months; 25¢/ six months; 50¢/ year

relevant information:

• Three issues of the Paper had been published by June 1838. [notice. Journal of Education]

• The Journal of Education republished some work from the Paper, including “First Lesson in Drawing” [notice. Journal of Education]

relevant quotes:

• “The Youth’s Penny Paper, says the prospectus, is designed to afford entertainment and instruction for the young; to aid them in their studies; to acquaint them with important passing events, as well as the elements of science; to inculcate religious and moral principles, to cultivate taste, and to prepare them for happiness and usefulness as members of society …. Each number … will contain one or more engravings; true tales or anecdotes, designed to improve the mind or character; sketches of real travel at home or abroad; a hymn or song, often with music; or short lessons on various departments of knowledge appropriate to different ages; with brief familiar notices of the news of the day.” [American Annals of Education]

• When advertising in the New York Evangelist, religion was emphasized: “Almost every number contains a hymn or song, with the music; and as the great object of the editor is to make moral and religious impressions while he imparts useful knowledge, this little paper is worthy of being generally introduced into families and schools. It has already received the approbation of many parents and teachers, and is sent to different parts of the country. … A gentleman, distinguished by his liberality to several benefcent enterprises, having witnessed the avidity with which the Youth’s Penny Paper was received and read by children around him, requested the editor to send a copy to each of the clergymen in the United States, with an invitation to promote its circulation. This design will soon be carried into effect.” [notice. New York Evangelist 9 (13 Oct 18380; p. 163]

source of information: Annals


• “Communication: The Youth’s Penny Paper.” Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 10 May 1838; p. 2.

• notice. Journal of Education 1 (June 1838): advertising section p. 1.

• “The Youth’s Penny Paper.” American Annals of Education. 8 (July 1838); pp. 335-336. online

• notice. The Evening Post [New York, New York] 3 Sept 1838; p. 2.

• “Items.” The Long-Island Star [Brooklyn, New York] 6 Sept 1838; p. 2.

• notice. New York Evangelist 9 (13 Oct 1838); p. 163.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 9 (22 ec 1838); p. 204.

• “American.” American Annals of Education. Feb 1839; p. 90.

Youth’s Magazine: A Monthly Miscellany ; May 1838-April 1841

cover/masthead: 1839

published: New York, New York: T. Mason & G. Lane for the Methodist Episcopal Church; #200 Mulberry St.; printed by J. Collord (Aug 1839)

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year. 1840-1841, volume begins with May issue

description: 1839-1841: 36 pp.; page size, 7″ h x 4.25″ w. Price, $1/ year; 6 copies, $5/ year; 13 copies, $10/ year; 20 copies, $15/ year, “and in the same proportion for any greater number”. [Aug 1839]

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant quote: Prospectus, vol 2: “This periodical is designed to fill up a niche in the literary department between the Quarterly Review and Sunday School Magazine on the one hand, and the Christian Advocate and Journal, on the other. … With respect to the past we are not wholly discouraged, though we did hope for a more generous patronage among the youth of our highly favoured church, and that a more lively interest would be shown by our preachers, Sunday school teachers, and others, in its circulation. We were also given to expect that our literary friends would come up to our help and load our table with a rich variety of original communications; but as they have not done so, quite equal to our expectation, we cannot, of course, ‘return thanks’ to that extent we could wish. We can, however, and we do ‘pray’ that our friends who wield the ready pen, will not forget us. The Youth’s Magazine offers a pleasing medium of communication to those active and intelligent spirits who may wish to impart to others the fruits of their own mental labour or leisure hours.” [Aug 1839; back cover (cover page 4)]

continues: Youth’s Instructer and Guardian • Youth’s Instructor and Sabbath School Assistant • Youth’s Instructor and Sabbath School and Bible Class Assistant (1823-1832)

source of information: Aug 1839 issue; AAS catalog; NUC; Batsel


• notice. Poughkeepsie Casket 2 (28 July 1838); p. 63. online

• notice. Western Christian Advocate 5 (13 July 1838); p. 12.

• notice. Western Christian Advocate 5 (5 Oct 1838); p. 94.

• notice. Poughkeepsie Casket 3 (13 July 1839); p. 55. online

• notice. Poughkeepsie Casket 3 (14 Dec 1839); p. 143. online

The Juvenile Depository, or Youth’s Mental Casket ; July 1838-1840? • Youth’s Mental Casket, and Literary Star • Casket and Star ; 1840-1842?

cover/masthead: 1841

edited by: July 1838-1840?, Luther Pratt • 1840?-1842? Luther Pratt; A. Blakesley

published: Skaneateles, New York: Luther A. Pratt, July 1838-June 1839. • New York, New York: Luther Pratt & A. Blakesley, Aug 1840-1842?

frequency: July 1838-June 1839, monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: July 1838-June 1839, 36 pp.; page size, 7″ h x 4″ w; price, $1/ year • 1841, page size, 9.75″ h

• July 1841 is vol 3 #5

relevant quotes:

• Introduction: “Among the multiplicity of improvements of the present day, no one has so high a claim on the attention of every Philanthropist, Patriot, and Christian, as that of a judicious cultivation of the men- [p. 2] tal faculties of youth; that they may be rendered capable of filling worthily, any station to which they may hereafter be called, of exercising the morl and social duties of life, and of performing those important functions which they owe to their country, and to their God. Perhaps there are no means better calculated to excite, in the youthful mind, a laudable emulation in the pursuit of useful knowledge, and to excite a development of latent genius, than to present them with a periodical, which they may regard especially as their own, in which they can see their juvenile productions in print, and preserve them for future inspection. For this reason, one of the principal designs of this work, is, to establish a DEPOSITORY for the essays of youth of both sexes, let them come from whatever quarter, provided they are correct in sentiment and language. Hence, preceptors of all seminaries of learning, are respectfully requested to forward the compositions of their pupils, to the editor, for publication in the Juvenile Depository. Besides juvenile productions, the Casket will contain, from time to time, the elementary principles of the most useful and necessary branches of education, together with such moral and interesting tales, founded on fact, or probability, as will prove at once instructive and entertaining, to youth of both sexes. In short, it will be the study of the editor to inculcate every moral and social virtue; and, above all, to inspire the mind with a due reverence and affection for the Supreme Being; but nothing of a sectarian nature shall ever be admitted; though the general principles tuaght by the Redeemer will be fearlessly inculcated. … ” [“Introduction.” 1 (July 1838: 1-2]

• The first issues apparently struck some as crude: “The design of the work is good, and the first number appears well, except in its mechanical execution, which is not such as it ought to be.” [notice. Hampshire Gazette]

• The Depository regularly missed several months of publication in its first years: “The first number of the second volume will not be issued until the first of August [1839]. The publication is thus delayed, in order to give its publisher time to make arrangements to present the second volume in a new and better dress.” [notice. Journal of Education June 1839] • “This interesting little work comes to us after a suspension of four months, from New York, instead of Skaneateles, although, it will be issued simultaneous from both places. Mr. Pratt the former editor has associated the Rev. Mr. Blakely, with him in its conduct.” [notice. American Masonic Register and Literary Companion]

• The history begins with publishers Luther A. Pratt and Elijah S. Keeney: “On July 1, 1838, the firm of Pratt & Keeney issued … the first number of the Juvenile Depository or Youth’s Mental Casket, the editor being Luther Pratt, father of L. A. Pratt. October 26 of that year they dissolved and Luther A. Pratt continued as publisher with Mr. Kinney as editor, and a year later the latter again became sole owner. The Juvenile Depository passed to Luther Pratt and W. M. Beauchamp, who soon after discontinued the publication.” [Onondaga's Centennial]

source of information: 1838-1839 vol; Hampshire Gazette; Journal of Education; American Masonic Register; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• notice. The New-Yorker 5 (28 July 1838); p. 301

• notice. Hampshire Gazette [Northampton, Massachusetts]. 52 (1 Aug 1838); p. 3, col 1

Journal of Education 1 (Aug 1838); p. 42.

• “Periodicals Devoted to Education.” Journal of Education 1 (Feb 1839); p. 1

• “List of Newspapers and Periodicals, Published in the State of New-York, Jan. 1, 1839.” (corrected list) The Jeffersonian [Albany, New York] 1 (2 Feb 1839); pp. 407-408. [google books]

• notice. Journal of Education 2 (June 1839); p. 31

• notice. American Masonic Register and Literary Companion. 14 Sept 1839; p. 15.

• “The Juvenile Depository.” American Masonic Register and Literary Companion. 15 Aug 1840; p. 398.

Onondaga’s Centennial, ed. Dwight H. Bruce. Boston, Massachusetts: The Boston History Company, 1896; vol 2: p. 996.

Companion for Youth ; 17 Nov 1838-11 May 1839

cover/masthead: 1838-1839

edited by: S. A. Thomas

published: New Haven, Connecticut: L. H. Young, 17 Nov 1838-16 March 1839.

• New Haven, Connecticut: Young & Uhlhorn, 23 March-27 April 1839.

frequency: weekly

description: 4 pp.; page size, 10.5″ h; prices, 50¢/ year; 25¢/ six months; 12½¢/ three months

relevant information:

• Included pieces intended for beginning readers and writers.

• The editor was Secretary of the New Haven County Association for the Improvement of Common Schools.

relevant quotes:

• The Companion was intended to augment classroom instruction: “It is intended to be what its name imports, a pleasing and instructive companion for the young of all classes, both at school and at home. To the teacher it will be a useful auxiliary, by giving variety to the different branches of study, and illustrating in various forms the application of the knowledge acquired in the school room to the every day business of life. It will contain interesting stories, historical anecdotes, sketches of natural history and geography; lessons in orthography, composition, and arithmetic, in various forms, calculated, while it instructs, to interest and amuse. In the family circle it will furnish occupation and amusement for the fireside, and increase the means for domestic instruction.” [“To Parents and Teachers.” 1 (17 Nov 1838); p. 1]

• The Companion folded due to lack of subscribers and lack of time on the part of the editor. After a blunt announcement in the 4 May 1839 issue that “[a]fter the next number, the Companion for Youth will be discontinued” [p. 100], Thomas elaborated and suggested a substitute: “[F]rom the regrets which have been expressed since our announcement last week, that it would be discontinued, we still believe that such a paper is called for. But confined as the Editor is, with the care of a large school, he has been unable to make the necessary exertions to extend its circulation, and thus far the income has not been sufficient to defray its expenses. The prospects for another quarter, are more encouraging,—but the difficulty of finding time amid his other duties, to attend to it, make it advisable that he should relinquish it. … To a suitable person, who can give the necessary time to the work, the opportunity is an inviting one, not only as a field of usefulness, but one which might be made to yield a handsome income. Should such a person be induced to undertake the publication, the subscription book of this paper will be at his service, and the Editor will be ready to do all in his power to forward the undertaking. In the mean time, the Editor would recommend to the subscribers of this paper, the Boston ‘Youth’s Companion,’ a paper of the same kind. … A subscription list for this paper will be left at Messrs. Young & Uhlhorn’s.” [“To Our Patrons.” 1 (11 May 1839); p. 104] In fact, Thomas included several pieces from Youth’s Companion in the last issue of his paper.

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog; Yale University Library catalog; notice

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• notice. Connecticut Common School Journal 1 (Dec 1838); p. 43.

The Acorn ; 1839-1840

cover/masthead: 1839 | 1840

published: Skaneateles, New York: Joseph Tallcot

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 7.5″ h

relevant information:

• The 1839 issue was a specimen with information intended for school committees; the cover assures readers that it was approved by a number of editors, ministers, and teachers in 12th month 1839. The specimen appears to be a copy of the Child’s Companion (1838-Tenth month 1839) with a new cover.

• Perhaps a continuation of Child’s Companion (1838-Tenth month 1839), also published by Tallcot; the back cover (cover page 4) of the first issue apparently refers to the magazine as the “Child’s Companion.”

relevant quotes:

• Four issues in, Tallcot was referring to the magazine as “to be published monthly.” [1 #4 (1840): front cover (cover page 1)]

• The back cover of the fourth issue hints that subscriptions weren’t going well: “Farther numbers will be issued as soon as a sufficient number of orders are received to sustain the work.” [1 #4 (1840): back cover (cover page 4)]

• Tallcot intended the Acorn to be used in schools, to instruct students about Christian concepts: “As no sectarian Catechism can be satisfactorily used in our Common Schools, shall we not unite in introducing these lessons, in which Christians so fully agree? Is not moral instruction as essential as other studies?” [editorial. 1 #4 (1840); p. 48.]

• While two issues contain only a reading lesson and a religious catechism, Tallcot planned more: “ ‘The Acorn’ is designed to embrace a variety of entertaining Anecdotes of a pious character, interesting Lessons from the best writers for children, and also many Sketches of Scripture Biography, with other portions of the Sacred Volume, the most interesting and instructive to children.” [editorial. 1 #4 (1840); p. 48.]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog; OCLC; University of Pittsburgh Libraries online catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• S. N. D. North. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States. Washington, District of Columbia: Government Printing Office, 1884 (1881); p. 400. [google books]

The Missionary ; 1839

edited by: Ebenezer McDowall

published: New York, New York

frequency: monthly

description: Only one issue

• Religious focus

relevant quote:

• Absorbed by Youth’s Cabinet, 15 Aug 1839: “For two reasons [Ebenezer McDowall] has discontinued the publication of the ‘Missionary.’ The expense was heavier than the income, and the Youth’s Cabinet, a very interesting paper, had beforehand entered into the same department of labor with the ‘Missionary.’ Subscribers to the Missionary will be supplied with the Youth’s Cabinet for six months, gratis, on condition that they take the paper for one year, by paying Fifty Cents. The editor cannot but hope that his friends will be satisfied with this arrangement—when, instead of the Missionary once a month, the Youth’s Cabinet will visit them weekly through the year, for the small consideration of fifty cents.” [Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (3 Oct 1839); p. 158]

absorbed by: Youth’s Cabinet ; 28 April 1837-March 1857

source of information: Dechert; Youth’s Cabinet


• Note. Youth’s Cabinet. 2 (3 Oct 1839): 158. online

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

The Friend of Youth ; March 1839-1839

edited by: A. T. Hopkins

published: Buffalo, New York: Thomas & Co., for the Sabbath School Depository; publisher at 165 Main St.

frequency: monthly

description: Price, 50¢/ year

• Religious focus

relevant quotes:

• From a notice: “It is designed, as its name imports, exclusively for the young and intended as an aid to ‘parents and teachers in their efforts to secure the intellectual, moral, and religious improvement of children and youth.’ The publication is a neat quarto, and its subject matter well adapted to the end in view. It is to be hoped, that as no work of the kind is issued between Buffalo and New York, and so far as known, none west of this city, the friends of religion and good morals will sustain the enterprise. Upon the patronage received, depends the continuance of the work, and a list of six hundred subscribers is necessary to the object.” [notice]

• From Follett: “It died in its youth, having survived only one year.”

source of information: notice, etc., below


• notice. Freeman and Messenger [Lodi, New York] 4 April 1839; p. 2.

• Frederick Follett. History of the Press of Western New-York. Rochester, New York: Jerome & Brother, 1847; p. 56. [google books]

Family and School Visitor ; Jan-before 31 July 1839

edited by: Cyril Pearl

published: Bangor, Maine & Portland, Maine.

relevant quote: On the end of the periodical: “The Family and School Visitor, has been discontinued, and its subscribers are to be supplied with the Portland Transcript, which has earned a good reputation as a literary paper. It is to have a department devoted to Education, and Mr. Pearl is to assist as editor.” [“Editorial Changes”]

absorbed by: the Portland Transcript (for adults)

source of information: Lyon

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• “Maine.” Connecticut Common School Journal 1 (1 May 1839); p. 151.

• “Periodicals Devoted to Education.” Journal of Education (Feb 1839); p. 1

• “Editorial Changes.” Maine Farmer and Journal of the Useful Arts 7 (13 July 1839); p. 206.

• Sheldon Emmor Davis. Educational Periodicals During the Nineteenth Century, Bureau of Education Bulletin no. 28. Washington, District of Columbia: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1919; p. 94. []

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 14.

Sabbath School Contributor ; 6 June 1839-20 May 1841 • The Light of Zion, and Sabbath School Contributor ; 3 June 1841-22 June 1843

cover/masthead: 1839 | 1840 | 3 June 1841

edited by: 6 June 1839-May 1840, Edward N. Harris

• June 1840-May 1841, O. A. Skinner

• June 1841-, O. A. Skinner & G. G. Strickland

• 1 June 1841-22 June 1843, G. G. Strickland

• 1843, J. G. Adams

published: Lynn, Massachusetts: E. N. Harris, 6 June 1839-May 1840; Jan-May 1839, the publisher was at Methuen.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Abel Tompkins, June 1840-May 1841

• Boston, Massachusetts: J. N. Bang, June 1841; publisher at 40 Cornhill

• Boston, Massachusetts: Usher & Strickland, 1 June 1841-22 June 1843. 1841, printed in Reading, Massachusetts

• Malden, Massachusetts, 1843

frequency: as announced, weekly; 6 June 1839-22 June 1843, biweekly; 26 issued/ year; 1 vol/ year

description: 8 pp.; prices: 1839-1840, 1843 $1/ year

• Circulation: 3 June 1841, fewer than 2500

• Religious focus: Universalist

relevant quotes:

• Prospectus: “The Subscriber proposes to publish a paper, to meet the pressing wants of the Universalist Denomination of Christians in these United States. … The great object of the work will be the improvement of Sabbath schools, which are so admirably calculated to bless the world. The Paper will not only abound with choice juvenile matter, but will explain, and urge upon parents, guardians, and teachers, their respective duties towards the dear children and youth of our beloved nation.” [“A New Paper”]

• The specimen issue was distributed in May 1839; in a letter dated 6 May 1839, Harris states, “The first number of the Sabbath School Contibutor may be looked for this week, by those who have sent in their names for it, although the list of subscribers is not so large by one-third as we anticipated, and yet larger, than was expected, from the ground gone over.” But Harris decided to use the Contributor to raise money for a local school, which meant that the first issue was officially published in June. [Harris]

• One reviewer was decidedly unimpressed by the illustrations in the first issue: “The first number of this periodical reached us some weeks ago, but owing to some accident was not seen by me until a day or two ago. … I would respectfully suggest the entire omission of prints, unless something better can be procured than the vile carricature [sic] on the fourth page. It looks as if it had been engraved in the dark ages, on a Babylonian brickbat, with one of Tuban Cain’s first made pokers! The representation of the infant Jesus is absolutely repulsive and horrid. And, to crown all, the children are told that it is ‘a sweet, PRETTY babe!’ I am sure no child can believe this statement, with the print before its eyes; and I must seriously protest against teaching them what it is utterly impossible for them to believe.” [A. B. G.] The Universalist & Ladies’s Repository agreed and looked askance at the poetry: “[The first issue] makes a good appearance save the engraving of the Birth of Christ, which is out of taste, and badly executed, and the new fashioned poetry which has no quality to recommend it.” [8 (July 1839); p. 77] The Contributor fired back, and the Universalist defended itself: “In the No. for Aug. 15, we find the following: ‘Ladies Repository. we are sorry that the ladies so much resemble the gentlemen in their editorial notices of infant, or unfledged publications. The Contributor, poor thing, is acknowledged to have a good sound body, but because the feathers of its wings were not full grown on its very first appearance, the Ladies’ Repository must tell everybody of it. And not being satisfied with that, it must echo the note which the Trumpet sounded about that unfortunate cut ….’—It is one thing to criticise a work, or notice one, to suit an author or publisher, and quite another thing to do it for the public benefit. Our rule is the latter, although as our organ of love of approbation is large, we may often be inclined to the other. Br. Harris of the Contributor, can understand this.” [8 (Sept 1839); p. 157]

• The Trumpet provided a tiny lesson in the distribution of some denominational periodicals: “The ‘Sabbath School Contributor’ is regularly lodged at the Bookstore of Whittemore & Paige, 37 Cornhill. Subscribers will please call for their papers as soon as possible after their arrival. They generally reach the Store on Wednesday.” [28 Dec 1839]

• The Contributor mingled pieces for children with pieces for adults in an awkward collection, as the Universalist & Ladies’ Repository pointed out: “It should be made—we think—a distinct Teacher’s and Children’s paper. Heretofore it has attempted too much in a certain way, and too little in another. It has not copied the excellences in papers of a similar character, and the influence of each article on the young mind has not been thought of.” [(Aug 1842); p. 80]

relevant information:

• Originally, the price was to be $1.25/ year; Harris lowered the price to $1 after some copies of the prospectus were distributed. [“A New Paper”]

• The Light of Zion is listed by the editor of the Eastern Rose-Bud and Sabbath School Companion as a possible substitute for that soon-to-be-defunct periodical: “To those who wish for a good juvenile paper for their children, we would recommend … the Light of Zion, published at Malden, Mass[.], and edited by Rev. J. G. Adams. The terms … are one dollar a year.” [“Close of the Volume”]

continued by: The Gospel Teacher and Sabbath School Contributor (also, Gospel Teacher, and Universalist Miscellany); 6 July 1843-after March 1845 (for adults)

• When the Gospel Teacher was deemed not appropriate for children, The Child’s Gospel Guide was founded.

source of information: OCLC; Eastern Rose-Bud; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• “A New Paper.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 (26 Jan 1839); p. 126.

• notice of prospectus. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 7 (Feb 1839); p. 359.

• “ ‘Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 (23 Feb 1839); p. 143.

• “Sabbath School Contributor.” Universalist Palladium & Ladies’ Amulet 1 (9 March 1839); p. 5.

• Prospectus. Star in the West 1 (16 March 1839); p. 384.

• “ ‘Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 (13 April 1839); p. 171.

• E. N. Harris. Letter to Dr. Whittemore. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 (11 May 1839); p. 187.

• A. B. G. “The Sabbath School Contributor.” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 10 (28 June 1839); p. 207.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 8 (July 1839); pp. 77-78.

• “Sabbath School Contributor.” Universalist Palladium & Ladies’ Amulet (13 July 1839); p. 103.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 8 (Sept 1839); p. 157.

• “The Sabbath School Contributor.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 12 (16 Nov 1839); p. 82.

• “ ‘Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 12 (28 Dec 1839); p. 107.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 8 (March 1840); p. 397.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 8 (May 1840); p. 473.

• A. B. G. “The Sabbath School Contributor.” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 11 (8 May 1840); p. 151.

• “Sabbath School Contributor.” Universalist Union 5 (23 May 1840); p. 432.

• “ ‘Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 12 (30 May 1840); p. 194.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository 9 (July 1840); p. 79.

• “Sabbath School Contributor.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 13 (22 May 1841); p. 190.

• “ ‘Light of Zion & Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (18 Sept 1841); p. 50.

• “Sabbath School Contributor.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (25 Sept 1841); p. 55.

• “The Light of Zion, and Sabbath School Contributor.” Universalist Union 7 (30 April 1842); p. 277.

• notice. Universalist & Ladies’s Repository (Aug 1842); p. 80.

• J. F. W. Notice. Balm of Gilead & Practical Universalist 1 (13 Aug 1842); p. 35.

• notice. The Norfolk Democrat [Dedham, Massachusetts] 2 Dec 1842; p. 2.

• “Close of the Volume.” Eastern Rose-Bud and Sabbath School Companion 4 (22 April 1843); p. 189.

• J. M. Usher. “Sabbath School Paper.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (24 Aug 1850); p. 43.

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, pp. 594-595. [google books]

Youth’s Temperance Advocate ; Nov 1839-1858 • Youth’s Temperance Advocate and Band of Hope Recorder ; 1859-after May 1865

cover/masthead: 1840-1841

edited by: John Marsh

published: New York, New York: American Temperance Union. 1840, publisher at Clinton Hall; 1860-1864, publisher at 5 Park Bank.

frequency: monthly: 1st Sunday of month

description: 1839-Dec 1845, 4 pp. Price: 75¢ per 100; distributed in Sunday schools. • 1840: page size, 10.25″ h x 7.5″ w

• 1863-1864, price 25¢/ issue

• Circulation (from magazine): Nov? 1839, 20,000; Oct 1840, 17,000. By Dec 1841, 595,500 copies printed. Circulation: 1842, 25,000 [Report, 1843; p. 13]; 1843, 20,000 [Report, 1844; p. 9]; 1847, over 14,000 [Report, 1848; p. 30]; 1850, 15,000 [Livingston]

• Issues #1 and #2 published in 1839; internal evidence indicates that issue #6 is May 1840. Thus, in early 1840 there seems to have been a month without an issue.

• #1-#97 (1839-Dec 1847); new series, vol 9, #1 (1 Jan 1848)-vol 21 #12 (Dec 1860)

• Last issue located is vol 26 #5 (May 1865)

relevant information:

• In 1850, J. W. Vail attempted to ensure that interested families in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, received free copies of the Advocate, paid for by donations. [“Temperance Among Children” & “Good News for Wisconsin!”]

relevant quotes:

• Establishing the paper: “In 1839 I [John Marsh] established the ‘Youth’s Temperance Advocate,’ that the children and youth of the country might early be rescued from the temptations to which they were exposed, and brought under the influence of our reform.” [Marsh; p. 65]

• Unsurprisingly, the Vermont Temperance Star was a fan from the start: “We have just received No. 1 of a small sheet entitled the Youth’s Temperance Advocate, … with which we acknowledge ourselves highly pleased. … It seems to us precisely the thing needed. Its place has been attempted to be supplied by setting apart a column or so of some of our monthly sheets, but however much good may be accomplished in this way the child does not feel that degree of interest in it as in a paper he knows and feels to be his own.” [We have just received]

• The Journal of the American Temperance Union paints the picture of adults eagerly snatching copies of the Advocate from their children: “Far, far beyond the expectations of the Committee, has this little herald of Temperance met with the approbation of the public, and been blessed to the promotion of temperance, not only among children and youth, but even parents and grandparents, who have eagerly grasped from the hands of the children as they came from the Sunday School, the little paper. Many touching incidents could we relate which have come to our knowledge.” [6 (Dec 1842)]

• As abolitionism began to split the country, the Advocate was taken to task. The Richmond Enquirer objected to “a very dexterously inserted tribute of praise to Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, meant, no doubt, as an Abolition lesson to be engrafted on the young minds to which the ‘Advocate’ is addressed.” [“Abolition in Disguise”] The reprinted piece—“Mrs. Harriet B. Stowe in England”—describes Stowe being honored for writing Uncle Tom’s Cabin and concludes, “There is in the breasts of men a love of freedom and humanity; and they who labor wisely for its promotion, will be rewarded. The story of Uncle Tom and little Eva has drawn tears from many eyes, and will continue to do so for a long time to come.” During the Presidential campaign of 1856, an article titled “The Presidents” caused controversy, for its descriptions of James Buchanan and John C. Fremont: “Mr. Buchanan is the candidate of the Democratic party, and will go for the extension of slavery. Mr. Fremont is the candidate of the Republican party, and will oppose the extension of slavery. … It is to be hoped the right will prevail, and the country saved for honor and glory.” The Buffalo Morning Express was amused when the editor of another paper was outraged by the words about Buchanan: “Let Democrats, and all who value the Sabbath school, consider whether they ought to send their children where such scandalous publications are put into their hands as the auxiliary of inspiration.” “Perhaps our friend,” the Express quips, “regards the Bible ‘a scandalous publication,’ for that teaches the principles of righteousness and justice, which if consulted and practised, will save the country ‘for honor and glory;’ and would have tat good book, too, kept from the hands of the children of Democrats.” [“In Deep Distress”] The Lancaster Intelligencer was as outraged as the Express’s friend, reprinting a diatribe from the New Hampshire Patiot: “What a deliberate, wilful, monstrous falsehood is here presented to deceive and mislead the unsuspecting children of the land! … Here, by men of whom truth at least is expected, the sons and daughters of Democrats, who are sent to the Sabbath School to rece[i]ve religious instruction, are taught that the Democratic candidate for the Presidency, who never owned a slave, or lived in a slave State, or uttered a word in defence of slavery, or whispered a sentence in favor of its extension, or cast a vote which any honest man could construe into a wish to support the institution, is meanly denounced as a slavery propagandist!” [“Infamous”]

• In 1919, on the eve of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors, issues of the Advocate fascinated the editor of the Hartford Courant, which details the contents of the July 1864 issue and reproduces a woodcut from 1842, in which a skeleton and various tiny demons attack a drinker and assert, “In hell, we never want for rum!” “For the benefit,” the Courant points out, “of those who feel that prohibition is a recent evil timely excavations in a New Britain attic have demonstrated that the ‘wets’ of seventy-five years ago had to fight the ‘drys’ just as hard as they are battling today to keep their personal liberty.” Noting that the 1842 issue includes a description of the Hartford Division of the cold-water army, the Courant muses, “Having read this paper perhaps most of the boys grew up and became members of the various state Legislatures that passed the prohibition bill that now stares all good lovers of the festive bowl straight in the face.” [“The Need of Prohibition Seventy-Five Years Ago”]

source of information: 1840-1860, scattered issues and bound volumes; Report, 1843, 1844, 1848; Marsh; Kelly (which—okay—I wrote); OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

• The Vermont Temperance Star [Montpelier, Vermont] reprinted “The Temple Family” [1 Dec 1839; p. 80]


• We have just received. Vermont Temperance Star [Montpelier, Vermont] 1 Dec 1839; p. 79.

• D. Hemenway. “Hartford County Temperance Society.” Christian Secretary 3 (4 Sept 1840); p. 3.

• “Address to the Citizens of the United States.” Christian Observer 20 (29 Jan 1841); pp. 18-19.

• advertisement: “Temperance Publications for Sale.” Christian Observer 21 (10 June 1842); p. 92.

• “Youth’s Temperance Advocate.” Journal of the American Temperance Union 6 (Dec 1842); p. 190.

Report of the Executive Committee of the American Temperance Union, 1843. (New York, New York: American Temperance Union, 1843).

Report of the Executive Committee of the American Temperance Union, 1844. (New York, New York: American Temperance Union, 1844).

• “Value of a Temperance Paper.” Scientific American. 1 (9 Oct 1845); p. 1, col 2. online

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 430. [google books]

• notice. New York Evangelist 18 (23 Dec 1847); p. 202.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 18 (23 Dec 1847); p. 203.

• advertisement. The Independent 1 (21 Dec 1848); p. 11.

Report of the Executive Committee of the American Temperance Union, 1848. (New York, New York: American Temperance Union, 1848).

• advertisement. Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 4 Jan 1848; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Temperance Advocate.” The Independent 1 (25 Oct 1849); p. 188.

• “Youth’s Temperance Paper.” New York Evangelist 20 (8 Nov 1849); p. 178.

• “Temperance Among Children.” Milwaukee Daily Sentinel [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 11 April 1850; p. 2. And, J. W. Vail. “Good News for Wisconsin!” Daily Free Democrat [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 15 March 1851; p. 3.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 31. []

• “Abolition in Disguise.” Richmond Enquirer [Richmond, Virginia] 8 July 1853; p. 1.

• advertisement. Christian Watchman and Reflector 35 (28 Dec 1854); p. 207.

• “In Deep Distress.” Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 14 July 1856; p. 2.

• “Infamous.” Lancaster Intelligencer [Lancaster, Pennsylvania] 26 Aug 1856; p. 2.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 28 (1 Jan 1857); p. 7.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 29 (2 Dec 1858); p. 3.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 30 (7 April 1859); p. 7.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 30 (18 Aug 1859); p. 5.

• advertisement. The Independent 12 (5 Jan 1860); p. 7.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 32 (17 April 1862); p. 5.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 34 (24 Dec 1863); p. 5.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 35 (14 Jan 1864); p. 5.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals,” in Census of the State of New York, for 1865. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen & Sons, 1867; pp. 592-593.

• John Marsh. Temperance Recollections. (New York, New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1866).

• “Temperance Paper Published in 1864.” Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 14 April 1919; p. 3.

• “The Need of Prohibition Seventy-Five Years Ago.” Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 1 June 1919; p. 29.

• Mabel F. Altstetter. “Early American Magazines for Children.” Peabody Journal of Education 19 (Nov 1941); p. 132.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 14, 15, 16, 134-136, 283.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The Sabbath School Friend ; 1840-

cover/masthead: 1840

published: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Alex. Ingram, jr; publisher at 78 Market St.

frequency: monthly

description: 24 pp.; page size, 8.25″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• Vol 1 #3 is June 1840

• Religious focus

relevant quote: By the third issue, the editor was disappointed by the circulation: “We are sorry to state that teachers have not acted efficiently for us; a few have done nobly, but the majority have given us no aid. From a calculation before us, not more than one out of every thirty teachers, and not one out of every hundred and twenty of the scholars, are subscribers to any of our Sabbath School periodicals. This speaks nothing in favor of the friends of the cause in the West. The East gives a liberal support to several publications of the kind; cannot our friends in the West sustain one monthly Magazine devoted to the cause of Sabbath Schools?” [“Ourselves.” 1 (June 1840); p. 72] It was suggested that children could pay for the subscription themselves, by putting away a penny a week: “Cannot many of our Sabbath Scholars save their cents and fips, and become subscribers to the Friend.” [“A Suggestion to Sabbath Schools.” 1 (June 1840); p. 72]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

Youth’s Monitor ; 1840-1842

cover/masthead: 1842

published: Portland, Maine: D. C. Colesworthy

frequency: biweekly

description: 4 pp.; page size, 12″ h. Price: 1 copy, 37½¢/ year

• 9 April 1842 is vol 2 #23

source of information: AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• “The Youth’s Monitor.” Christian Observer 19 (30 July 1840); p. 123.

• H. W. Richardson. “The Press of Cumberland County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 66. []

The Sabbath School Monitor (also Sunday School Monitor, 1840); 1840-1846? • Light Ship and Sabbath School Monitor ; 1846 or 1847

edited by: 1840-1845, Nathaniel Southard; 1845, Myron Finch [from Doggett]

• early 1846, Francis Chandler Woodworth; at 135 Nassau St.

• late 1846, Myron Finch

published: New York, New York: Nathaniel Southard, 1840-1841; 1840, Southard at 9 Spruce St.; 1841, Southard at 126 Fulton St.

• New York, New York: David Austin Woodworth, Jan 1846.

• New York, New York: Myron Finch, 1846; publisher at 118 Nassau St.

frequency: 1840-1846: biweekly (“every other Thursday”)

description: 1840: folio. Price: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 20 copies, $5/ year. • 1846: price, 12.5¢

• Vol 2 began 10 June 1841

• Religious focus

• Dechert lists various titles for this work: in New York City directory for 1842/1843, New York Sabbath School Monitor ; in New York City directory for 1843/1844 and 1845/1846, Sabbath School Monitor; in New York City Directory for 1846/1847, magazine has merged with the Light Ship to become the Light Ship and Sabbath School Monitor, published by Myron Finch.

• The Light Ship apparently was a semimonthly periodical for adults, according to Francis C. Woodworth, who purchased The Youth’s Cabinet in 1845: “Mr. Finch, who preceded us in the editorial conduct of the Cabinet, now publishes a semi-monthly sheet, devoted mainly to the interests of sailors and boatmen, which is appropriately denominated the ‘Light Ship.’ It is edited by one with whom the dialect of the sailor seems almost vernacular, and whose yarns and splicings could not be better if he had doubled Cape Horn a dozen times. The ‘Light Ship’ hails from 118 Nassau street.” [Cabinet; p. 68]

The Sabbath School Monitor and The Youth’s Cabinet (28 April 1837-March 1857) seem to have been purchased at the same time by the Woodworth brothers, who in 1846 offered the two periodicals together to subscribers: “THE SABBATH SCHOOL MONITOR, FRANCIS C. WOODWORTH, EDITOR, [i]s published semi-monthly, at the office of the Youth’s Cabinet, 135 Nassau-street. Its design is indicated by its title. The publisher commends it to the patronage of Sabbath Schools …. It has recently been enlarged, and greatly improved in its typography and the quality of the paper on which it is printed.” [Cabinet: inside back cover (cover page 3)]

source of information: Poughkeepsie Casket; Youth’s Cabinet; New-York Evangelist; Dechert; Doggett

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• notice. Poughkeepsie Casket 22 Aug 1840; p. 79. online

• notice. Youth’s Cabinet. 3 (25 June 1840); p. 102.

• notice. Christian Observer 19 (30 July 1840); p. 123.

• advertisement. New-York Evangelist. 12 (5 June 1841); p. 92, col 6.

• “Our Own Affairs.” New York Evangelist 13 (6 Jan 1842); p. 2.

• “To Sabbath Schools.” New York Evangelist 13 (19 May 1842); p. 79.

• “Sabbath School Paper.” New York Evangelist 14 (20 July 1843); p. 115.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 14 (20 July 1843); p. 115.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 14 (28 Dec 1843); p. 207.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 15 (18 Jan 1844); p. 11.

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 429; p. 429. [google books]

• notices. The Youth’s Cabinet. n.s. 1 (Feb 1846); p. 68; inside back cover (cover page 3).

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 17 (5 Feb 1846); p. 23.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 17 (19 Feb 1846); p. 32.

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

The Young Catholics’ Friend ; 6 May 1840-after 26 Dec 1840

cover/masthead: 1840

edited by: H. B. C. Greene

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Philip A. Kirk; 6 May 1840, publisher at corner of Congress and Water Streets; 26 Dec 1840, publisher at 7 Boston Ave.

frequency: weekly: 6 May 1840, Wednesday; 26 Dec 1840, Saturday

description: 4 pp.; page size, 12.5″ h; price, $1/ year

• Religious focus: Catholic

relevant information: Also referred to as the Young Catholic’s Friend.

relevant quote: The Friend was “designed to be strictly a Catholic paper;—that is, it is for the Catholics, it is intended it shall operate; and it will not be enlisted in any questions of a sectional, national, or political character. … Our young Catholics are met, with papers, tracts, and small publications of every description, which assail their religion in innumerable forms of attack, and which represent its progress and prractice in every point of view, but the true. To offset the evils thus produced, to give them seasonable and just accounts of the course and practice of their brother Catholics throughout the world;—to point out the sources where information upon topics of particular interest may be received, and to display some of the examples, (which the History of the Church so abundantly funishes,) of Christian excellence; and to demonstrate that this is never incompatible with intellectual culture and social worth:—will be among the principal objects it will embrace.” [Prospectus. The Young Catholics’ Friend 1 (6 May 1840); p. 4.]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3

available: AASHistPer, series 3


• notice. The Catholic Telegraph 9 (30 May 1840); p. 174.

• H. T. “Our Household.” The Lowell Offering 1 (1 April 1841); p. 364; reprinted in Harriet H. Robinson. Loom and Spindle; or, Life Among the Early Mill Girls. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Company, 1898; p. 92. []

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