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The American Spelling Book, by Noah Webster (1800?)

Noah Webster (1758-1843) was the man of words in early 19th-century America. Compiler of a dictionary which has become the standard for American English, he also compiled The American Spelling Book, which was the basic textbook for young readers in early 19th-century America. Before publication of this book in 1783, many schools used Thomas Dilworth's A New Guide to the English Tongue. (Samuel Goodrich learned to read from Dilworth; he thought Webster's book was better.) Webster's book, with its polysyllabic words broken into individual syllables and its precepts and fables, became the favorite. Revised several times by Webster, as the "blue-back speller" it taught generations of Americans how to read and how to spell. (Several books will be of interest to researchers: Defining Noah Webster: Mind and Morals in the Early Republic, by K. Alan Snyder, is a thorough discussion of the social values Webster espoused in his works; A Common Heritage: Noah Webster's Blue-Back Speller, by E. Jennifer Monaghan, is an informative look at the Speller, its history, and Webster; A Bibliography of the Writings of Noah Webster, compiled by Emily Ellsworth Ford Skeel and Edwin H. Carpenter, Jr., is invaluable for identifying copies of the Speller and of Webster's other works.)

Today, the Spelling Book is useless as a children's textbook, but it provides us an example of what Webster thought it important to tell young learners about morality (readers could decide to emulate the "good boy" or the "bad boy") and the principles of American government (members of Congress must be paid because otherwise "none but rich men could afford to serve as delegates," and "there are many men of little property, who are among the most able, wise and honest persons in a state"). The Spelling Book also shows the ways a language can change in 200 years--spelling, for example: "musquetoe"; "potatoe" (which may please fans of a recent American vice-president). And there are hints of the way some early Americans spoke: "angel" had an extra syllable; "negro" was also pronounced "negur." (For the way the language looked 50 years later, see Dictionary of Americanisms.)

Unfortunately, this copy is missing the part of its title page that would tell us who printed it and when. The Spelling Book was by necessity published by various printers in the large cities, who contracted with Webster to produce the book. (See Monaghan for details.) My copy probably was published in Wilmington, Delaware, by Bonsal and Niles. Like the 10th Wilmington edition (1802) described by Skeel and Carpenter (#69), it has 151 pages; editions from other printers are different lengths. My copy also contains the charmingly inelegant woodcuts that appeared in the Bonsal and Niles copies. (See Skeel and Carpenter, plate XI.) And what's left of the title page is exactly like that of the 11th Wilmington edition, reproduced in the Early American Imprints, Second Series (#3518). (That I may have purchased it from a bookseller in Delaware may also be an indicator.)

Fortunately, the publication date may have been provided elsewhere in the book. "For the first few years of publication of the speller," Skeel and Carpenter point out, "the final number in the section 'Of Numbers' was almost always the same as the title-page date in the dated editions, so it has been taken as a strong indication of the year for undated editions." (p. 5) The final number here, on page 108, is 1800. Certainly it was printed after 1790, when the "Federal Catechism" appeared as part of the Spelling Book, and after 1794, when the "Moral Catechism" was added. (See Skeel and Carpenter, #36 and #39.)

If it is the 1800 edition, this would make this one of the earliest copies described of the Wilmington edition. The 10th edition -- the earliest Wilmington edition described by Skeel and Carpenter -- is dated 1802, as is the 11th edition; a recent search on OCLC returned no earlier Wilmington copies than those.

Like many early textbooks, this copy has had an active life. At some point, it lost its frontispiece (a truly unflattering portrait of Webster) and the bottom half of its title page. Ripped from its covers, the book was carefully reassembled and sewn back into its leather binding with strong thread. In 2006, the title page appeared on page 45 of 5,000 Miles to Freedom: Ellen and William Craft's Flight from Slavery, by Judith Bloom Fradin and Dennis Brindell Fradin (Washington, DC: National Geographic).

The book is presented here in its entirety, both in transcription and in page images. Transcribing this book has been ... not the kind of thing I ever want to do ever again -- ever. I've kept almost all the formatting, including the many tables. I've also included the signature marks, in backslashes: //B//. My corrections and text missing in my copy are in square brackets: [t]he. The missing text has been copied from the 11th Wilmington edition, reproduced on microcard as part of the Early American Imprints, second series (#3518).

Certain decisions were made in the service of readability. The long "s" was not retained; I added an extra space between paragraphs and once or twice added a blank line where the printer evidently had no space for one; and words divided at the end of a line were rejoined without comment. Those wishing to see the divided words can look at the page images.

Page images are linked to the transcribed text and will open in a separate frame or a separate browser window. The images are extremely large, for the sake of readability. They are of the two-page spreads, so viewers can get a sense of what students saw when they opened the book. For that reason, too, the images are in color.

Webster's book relies on many (many, many) carefully spaced tables and columns. For best viewing of the transcript, please ensure that your browser uses a fixed-space font such as "Courier New" for fixed fonts.


THE AMERICAN SPELLING BOOK, by Noah Webster (Wilmington: Bonsal & Niles, 1800?)

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[title page]

----- [page image] [dedication]
----- [p. v] RECOMMENDATIONS. HAVING examined the first part of the new Grammatical Insitute of the English Language, published by Mr. Noah Webster we are of opinion, that it is far preferable, in the plan and execution, to Dilworth's or any other Spelling Book, which has been introduced into [o]ur schools. In these the entire omission of the rules of pronunciation is a capital defect, which very few of the parents, schoolmasters or mistresses, employed in teaching children the first rudiments have sufficient knowledge to supply. The usual method of throwing together, in the same tables, and without any mark of distinction, words in which the same letters are differently pronounced, and the received rules of dividing syllables, which are wholly arbitrary, and often unnatural, seem calculated to puzzle the learner, and mislead the instructor into a vicious pronunciations. These defects and mistakes are judiciously supplied in the present work, and the various additions are made with such propriety, that we judge this new Spelling Book will be extremely beneficial for the use of schools. Subscribed by the following Gentlemen. The Hon. Oliver Wolcott, Esq. Rev. Samuel Hopkins, Lieut. Gov. of Connecticut, Col. Samuel Wyllys, Rev. Ezra Stiles, S. T. D. Ralp Pomeroy, Esq. [sic] President of Yale College, John Trumbull, Esq. Rev. Elizur Goodrich, D. D. Rev. Timothy Dwight, D. D. Rev. Patrick Allison, D. D. Rev. Eliphalet Steele, Hon. Steph. M. Mitchel, Esq. Rev. Nathan Strong, Col. George Syllys, Secretary Rev. Nathan Perkins, of State, Rev. Joseph Buckminster, Col. Thomas Seymour, Mayor Mr. Andrew Law, of the City of Hartford, Daniel Lyman, Esq. Gen. Samuel H. Parsons, Chauncy Goodrich, Esq. Hon. John Treadwell, Esq. Joel Barlow, Esq. ------- Extract of a letter from Dr. Joseph Willard, President of the University at Cambridge, to the author, dated Feb. 2, 1784. SIR, I RECEIVED, some time ago, three copies of your Grammatical institute of the English Language. I have perused it myself, and put into the hands of several friends for their perusal. We all concur in the opinion, that it is much superior to Mr. Dilworth's New Guide, and that it may be very useful in Schools. I wish you success, sir[,] in every endeavour to advance useful knowledge, and hope, in a particular manner, that your exertions to promote an accurate acquaintance with the English Language among our youth, will be attended with the greatest advantage. I am Sir, your humble servant. JOSEPH WILLARD. //A 2// ----- [page image] p. vi Copy of a letter from Tapping Reeve, Esq. formerly one of the Masters of the College at Princetown, to John Canfield, Esq. dated Litchfield, October 12, 1782. SIR, MR. Webster, has shewn me a plan of a new English Spelling Book and Grammar; informing me that you wish to know my opinion respecting it. I have perused it sufficiently to form an opinion of the general plan; it appears to be well conceived and judiciously executed, and I apprehend would better answer the purposes of its design than any thing I have hitherto seen. I think it well deserves the attention of the public: for, what is no little importance, the general use of it will go very far towards demolishing all the odious distinctions occasioned by provincial dialects. Yours, &c. TAPPING REEVE. ---------- Extract of a letter from Mr. Benjamin West, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston, to the Author, dated Providence, September 11, 1784. SIR, WITH great pleasure and satisfaction I have perused your Grammatical Institute of the English Language, and think it the best plan for the instruction of youth of any that has yet been published. You may depend on it, Sir, I shall do all in my power to encourage the sale of it; and if you think my name will be of any weight, you are welcome to make use of it. I am, Sir, with the greatest sincerity, your most obedient humble servant, BENJAMIN WEST. ---------- College at Providence, April 14, 1785. HAVING examined Mr. Webster's Grammatical Institute we embrace this opportunity to express our approbation of a work of so much use and merit. We think he deserves the thanks of all his Countrymen, who wish to speak or write the English Language properly. STEPHEN HOPKINS, Chancellor. JAMES MANNING, President. ASHUR ROBBINS, Tutor. ---------- PERSPICUITY, correctness and precision, should as much as possible, attend every branch of instruction: These are peculiarly necessary in its introductory elements. On perusing this first part of a Grammatical institute, it is with pleasure we find the powers of our alphabet judiciously ascertained; the spelling methodized more happily than is usual in books of this sort; the rules concise, explicit, and exceedingly well adapted to their end. ----- p. vii Any Spelling Book, we are sensible, may be used to advantage in the hands of a teacher who is himself a good judge of pronunciation; but it is the peculiar excellence of this, that, wherever it is adopted, the teacher, however deficient at present in that necessary accomplishment, cannot remain so. It may be observed, indeed, that in some instances the author, confiding in his own sense of propriety, has ventured to depart from that pronunciation which has been generally received.* How far the public will approve of the deviations from former practice, we do not undertake to determine. However, they are but few, and in themselves not very considerable. In all events we can safely recommend this little book as a performance of special merit. SAM. MAGAW, Vice Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. JOHN ANDREWS, Principal of the July 20, 1787, Academy of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. ======= MR. Webster's Spelling Book, for the use of Children in the rudiments of the English Language, is, in my opinion, the best that has yet been published. ANDREW BROWN. Young Ladies Academy, in the City of Phila. July 21, 1787. ======= New-York, July 4, 1788. THE Committee of the Philological Society appointed to examine the first part of Mr. Webster's Grammatical Institute of the English Language, beg leave to report to the Society, that they approve of the plan and execution of the work, and recommend it to the use of schools in the United States, as an accurate well digested system of principles and rules, calculated to destroy the various false dialects in pronunciation in the several States, an object very desirable in a federal republic. In Society. Resolved, That the Society do accept the foregoing report. Test. JOSIAH O. HOFFMAN, President. * In the author's dissertations, the contrary is proved. ----- [page image] [p. viii] ==================== PREFACE. ========== THE design of this Grammatical institute is to furnish schools in this country with an easy, accurate and comprehensive system of rules and lessons for teaching the English language. To frame a complete system upon such an extensive plan, it was judged requisite to compile a small cheap volume for the use of beginners, containing words methodically arranged, sufficient to give the learner a just idea of spelling.* Among the defects and absurdities found in the books of this kind hitherto used, we may rank the want of a thorough investigation of the sounds in the English language, and the powers of the several letters--the promiscuous arrangement of words in the same table, in which the same letters have several different sounds--the unnatural and arbitrary method of dividing syllables, which separates letters from the syllables where they belong, supplying the defect by artificial marks, and which, in several hundred words, makes more syllables than are pronounced--and particularly the omission of a criterion by which the various sounds of the vowels may be distinguished. In attempting to correct these faults, it was necessary to begin with the elements of the language, and explain the powers of the letters. With regard to some of them, the opinions of Grammarians are divided; but perhaps the definitions given in the analysis, of the terms vowel, diphthong, and consonant, will establish an almost infallible rule for the decision of every question respecting the alphabet. The Index or Key to the pronunciation of the vowels and diphthongs, appears to me sufficiently plain, and so accurate as to prevent every material error. A more accurate plan may be formed; but it must be too intricate to be useful in common schools. * It appears to me a great misapplication of money, to put a large book, and especially a grammar, into the hands of children who are learning the letters. ----- p. ix In adapting the first tables to the capacities of children, and the progress of knowledge in the tender mind, particular care has been taken to begin with easy words, and proceed gradually through every class to those that are most irregular and difficult. Most monosyllables of general use are collected in the following work, except such as end in e, and have the preceding vowel long; or such as end in a consonant, and have the preceding vowel short; and a few in ee, in either of which cases, the bare mention of the letters is sufficient to lead the learner to a just pronunciation. In the tables of polysyllables, most or all the anomalous words of common use are collected; terms of art, which belong to particular professions are omitted. In order to comprise the greatest possible number of words in a small compass, compound and derivative words are generally omitted; as they usually follow the rules of their primitives. The syllables of words are divided as they are pronounced, and for this obvious reason, that children learn the language by the ear. Rules are of no consequence but to printers and adults. In Spelling Books they embarrass children, and double the labour of the teacher. The whole design of dividing words into syllables at all, is to lead the pupil to the true pronunciation: and the easiest method to effect this purpose will forever be the best. Reason might teach this truth; but experience places the matter beyond a controversy:-- The teachers who have used the former editions of this work, have unanimously declared, that children learn to spell and pronounce with more ease and exactness, and give much less trouble to the matter, than they did in the use of Di[l]worth's New Guide, or other Spelling Books framed on the same plan. As the orthography of our language is not yet settled with precision, I have in this particular generally followed the most approved authors of the last and present century. In some classes of words the spelling of Ash is preferred to that of Johnson, which is less correct. The names of places peculiar to America are not all spelt as in former books; but it is expected this licence will be excused, as it renders the spelling more agreeable to the pronunciation. The spelling of such words as publick, favour, neighbour, bead, prove, phlegm, his, give, debt, rough, well, instead of the more natural and easy method, public, favor, nabor, bed, proov, flem, hiz, giv, det, ruf, wel, has the plea of antiquity in its favour; and yet I am convinced that common sense and convenience will sooner or later get the better of the present absurd practice. But when we give new names to places, rivers, &c[.] or express Indian sounds by English letters, the orthography should coincide exactly with the true pronunciation. To retain old difficulties may be absurd; but to ----- [page image] p. x create them without he least occasion, is folly in the extreme. It is the work of years to learn the present spelling of our language-- a work which, with a correct orthography, might be performed in a few months. The advantage of familiarizing children to the spelling and pronunciation of American names is very obvious, and must give this work the preference to foreign Spelling Books. It is of great importance to give our youth early and correct information respecting the geography of this country. We have a multitutde of books which give us the state of other countries, but scarcely one which affords us any account of our own.* An explanation of the names and geographical terms in this part of the Institute, are given in the third part. The necessity and probable utility of the plan will best appear by examining the execution. Such material alterations of the old system of education will undoubtedly alarm the rigid friends of antiquity; but in vindication of the work, the author assures the public, that it has the approbation and patronage of many of the principal literary characters in America, and that it is framed upon a plan similar to those of the best Lexicographers and Grammarians in the British nation. To diffuse an uniformity and purity of language in America--to destroy the provincial prejudices that originate in the trifling differences of dialect, and produce reciprocal ridicule--to promote the interest, literature and the harmony of the United States--is the most ardent wish of the author; and it is his highest ambition to deserve the approbation and encouragement of his countrymen. * Mr. Morse's Geography has supplied this defect. ----- [p. 11] =============== THE AMERICAN SPELLING BOOK. ---+--- ANALYSIS OF SOUNDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. IN the English alphabet there are twenty five single characters, that stand as representatives of certain sounds. A, b, c, d, e, f, g, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z. H is not a mark of sound; but it qualifies or gives form to a succeeding sound.* In order to understand these letters, or rather the sounds they represent, it is necessary to decline the meaning of the words vowel, diphthong and consonant. A vowel is a simple articulate sound. A simple sound is formed by opening the mouth in a certain manner, without any contact of the parts of it. Whenever a sound can be begun and completed with the same positions of the organs, it is a simple sound. A diphthong is a union of two simple sounds, pronounced at one breath. To form a diphthong, there are necessarily required two different positions of the organs of speech. A consonant, or, as it is called by the ancients, a close-letter, forms no distinct articulate sound of itself. In pronouncing most of the English consonants, there is required a contact of the parts of the mouth, and the union of a vowel; though some of the consonants form imperfect syllables of themselves.] According to these definitions, let us examine the letters of the English alphabet. The letters a, e, o, are vowels. With the same position of the organs, with which we begin the sound of these letters, the sounds may be prolonged at pleasure: they are therefore simple sounds or vowels. The letters i and y are either vowels, diphthongs or consonants. They are both characters for the same sound, in different words, and different situations. In the words die, defy, they are the same * It is however, questioned by some critics, whether h may not be ranked among the gutteral letters. † This is the case with the semi-vowels in the words feeble, baptism, and with almost all terminations in e. ----- [page image] p. 12 diphthong; we begin the sound with nearly the same position of the organs, as we do broad a, though not quite the same; but not being able to continue that sound, we run into e, and there close the sound. Two different positions of the organs are required; consequently two different sounds are formed,w hich being closely united in the pronunciation, are denominated a diphthong.* In the words sight, pit, glory, Egypt, i and y are vowels. The sound of i in sight, would run into e, and so form a diphthong, if it were not prevented by the following consonant. But the short sound of i and y, as in pit, and glory, is always a simple sound. In the words valiant, youth, i and y have a liquid sound, which is formed by a contact of the tongue and upper part of the mouth, and certainly deserves a place among the consonants. U is a vowel or a diphthong. Its short sound, as in the word tun, is a vowel; its long sound in truth, is a vowel; its long sound when it closes a syllable, as in due, is a diphthong, composed of its simple sound in truth, and the sound of oo. In a few words i answers the purpose of the consonant y before u, as in union, unanimity, which are pronounced yunion, yunanimity. W is a vowel; its sound being nearly the same as oo short, in root. Before another vowel it is used to form a diphtong; as in will, dwell, which are pronounced ooill, dooell. Some authors content that it is a consonant; but according to the foregoing definitions, it is rather a vowel.† As these characters have different powers, so there are other vowels expressed by the same characters. The sound of a in hall, which is called broad a is a distinct vowel: in father, huzza, it is another; o in move, is another: and the short u is also a distinct vowel. Several of the vowels have a short sound or quantity and what is very singular, the short and long sounds are in most instances represented by different characters. Thus, * This has been sometimes called a double vowel, which is, in strict propriety, absurd; for if a vowel is a simple sound, then a double vowel must be a double simple sound. Nor can we pronounce a compound sound; for in all diphthong sounds we pronounce one simple sound first, then the others, and each distinctly. The definition of a diphthong given appears to me accurate. † I am not strenuous in this opinion; it approaches so near a consonant that it can hardly be distinguished from one. ----- p. 13 {a in late makes short e in let. {e in feet makes short i in fit. {o in pool makes short u in pull. { Long { {o in holly, or {a in hall makes short {a in wallow. { {a in father makes a short in fathom. {o in hone makes o short in home. The short sounds of the four first are almost always represented by other characters, as may be observed in the examples. That e in let i[s] the same vowel as a in late, as demonstrable by this consideration, that no more than one articulate sound can be formed by the same position of the organs of speech. The only difference in the sound that can be made by the same configuration of the parts of the mouth is to prolong or shorten the same sound. According to this principle we observe that late and let being pronounced with the same apperture of the mouth, and with the same disposition of the organs, as nearly as the consonant t will permit, must contain the same vowel. The same rule will apply to the other examples. Al the long and short simple sounds in English are found in the following words: Long. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a a a e i o o u late, ask, hall, here, sight, note, move, truth. Short. 2 1 4 9 7 3 a e i u u o or a hat, let, fit, but, bush, not, or what. By these it appears that all the vowels, except the 5th, 6th, 8th, and 9th, have duplicates--that those vowels that are placed under the same figure, are only different qualities of the same sound-- and that deducting the five duplicates, there remain nine distinct simple sounds or vowels.* According to the foregoing theory of sounds, oi, oy, ou, and ow, are diphthongs. The two former are different combinations for the same sound, which is always composed of broad a and long e. The two latter are also representatives of the same sound, which is composed of a sound peculiar to itself, and athat of oo. Examples of the former we have in the words, voice, joy; of the latter in loud. * I and u are vowels only when followed by consonants. The proper vowels are seven. //B// ----- [page image] p. 14 The other diphthongs in the language are attended with no difficulty, as a just pronunciation of them naturally results from the customary sounds of the letters that compose them. The consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels. The mutes are b, d, g, k, p, t. In pronouncing these syllables, eb, ed, eg, ek, ep, et, especially the three last, which are perfectly mute, the voice is wholly intercepted by the consonant. But in pronouncing the semivowels, f, l, m, n, r, f, v, s, in the syllables ef, el, em, en, er, es, ev, ez, we may observe a voice is not wholly intercepted at once, but the sound of the consonant is prolonged. Besides these there are five consonants, which for want of single characters we express by double letters; sh in shall; th in think; th in thou; s in delusion, and ng in sing. These are all simple consonants and semivowels. It would be well if they were called by the names, esh, eth, zh, ing[.] H is not a mark of sound, but only of a strong aspiration or emission of breath. C is totally superfluous; being always sounded like k or s. Q is always followed by u, and is the same as k. J is a mark of the sounds dzh. X is always sounded like ks, gz, or z. The consonants therefore will stand thus: Mutes; eb, ed, eg, ek, ep, et. Semivowels; ef, el, em, en, er, es, ev, ez, eth, esh, ezh, ing. The sounds of our vowels are so exceedingly capricious and irregular, particularly in monosyllables, that they are hardly reducible to rules; for which reason the learner is referred to the tables for his knowledge of them. A few general rules respecting the consonants will be advantageous. B has one invariable sound, as in bird; before t and after m, it is silent, as in doubt, dumb; as also in subtle. C before a, o, u, sounds like k; before e, i, y, like s. ca ce ci co cu cy Thus ka se si ko ku sy It is useless when followed by k in the same syllable, as in stick. It is always hard like k in the end of words, as in public, pronounced publick. It sounds like sh in the terminations ceous, cious, cial; as in cetacious, gracious, social, pronounced cetashus, grashus, soshal. It is sometimes silent, as in indict. D has always the same sound, as in rod. It is sometimes silent, as in handkerchief. F has always its own sound, as in offer; except in the word of, where it sounds like v, ov. ----- p. 15 G has two sounds: one as in go, the other like j, as in gentle. It has its first or hard sound before a, o, u; in general its second or soft sound before e and y, and is either hard or soft before i. See Table 35. It is very frequently silent, 1st, before m, as in phlegm; 2dly, before n, as in sign; 3dly, before h, as in sight, except when gh sounds like f, in laugh. H is a mark of strong breathing, but is silent in heri, hour, honest, honour, and their derivative. J is the mark of a compound sound, which is always the same, viz. that of dzh or soft g, as in joy. It is never silent. K has but one sound, as in king. When it precedes n it is always silent, as in know; and when united with c at the end of words either c or k is superfluous, as in flick. L has only one sound as in lame, and is sometimes silent, as in salmon, walk. M has but one sound, as in man, and is never silent. N is also uniform in its sound, but is always silent after m, in the same syllable, as in hymn. P has but one uniform sound as in pit; and is silent between m and t, as in contempt, sumptuary. Q has the power of k, and is always followed by u. In some words of French original it terminates the syllable, as in pique, oblique, burlesque, where ue are not sounded. It is never silent. R has always the same sound as in barrel, and is never silent. S has four sounds; that of soft c in so; of z, as in rise; of sh, as in mission; of zh, as in osier, brasier. But these sounds can hardly be reduced to general rules. It is silent in siel, island. Its various sounds may be found in the 26th and 28th Tables. T has its own proper sound, as in turn, at the beginning of words and end of syllables. It has the sound of sh in all terminations in tion and tial; as nation, nuptial, except when preceded by a t or x when it sounds like ch, as in question, mixtion. V has always the same sound as in voice, and is never silent. X has two compound sounds, viz. those of ks, and gz. When followed by an accented syllable beginning with a vowel, it has the sound of gz, as in exist, example. See table 39. In almost every other situation it has the sound of ks as in vex, exercise, exculpate. In the beginning of some Greek names it sounds like z, as Xerxes, Xenocrates, Xenophon. Z has two sounds; its proper sound, as in zeal; and taht of zh, as in azure. Its place is commonly usurped by an s, as in wisdom, reason. ----- [page image] p. 16 Simple Consonants marked with double letters. Th has two sounds, aspirated and vocal. Aspirated in think, hath. Vocal in thou, that. For the different sounds of th, see the 12th and 32nd tables, where the words are collected and the sounds distinguished. Sh has but one sound, as in shall, and is never silent. But its sound is expressed by several other characters; by c in social; by t in notion; by s in passion. The French ch has precisely the same sound as sh in English, as in machine, chevalier. The sound of s in diffusion, occasion, &c. which is the French j is best represented by zh. For the words in which this sound occurs, see table 28. Ng form a simple sound, which at the end of words, is always uniform, as in sing, strong. When the word ends in e the g is soft like j, as in range. When a syllable is added, the sound of ng flows into the next syllable, as hang, hanger. Except long, strong, young, the derivatives of which are pronounced strong-er, young-er. Besides these we have several combinations of consonants, but one of which is pronounced; these Mr. Sheridan calls digraphs, that is double written. Sc before a, o, u and r, are pronounced like sk; as scale, scoff, sculptor, scribble; before e, i, y, like simple s, or soft c, as scene, science, scythe.* Sc before the several vowels is thus pronounced: sca sce sci sco scu scy ska se si sko sku sy Ch in words originally English sound like tsh; as in charm. In words derived from the Greek and Herbrew, and in technical terms, like k; as chorus; Melchisedeck. In words derived from the French, generally sh; as in chivalry; pronounced shivalry. See the 33d and 34th tables. Gh sound like f; as in laugh, or are silent; as in lights. This rule admits of no exception. Ph have invariably the sound of f, unless in Stephen, where the sound is that of v. N. B. The sounds of the vowels digraphs, such as ea, ei &c. can hardly be reduced to general rules, and it is rather unnecessary in this work, as most words where they occur are collected into the proper tables, where their sounds are distinguished. R U L E S, For placing the accent in words of more syllables than one, and for pronouncing certain terminations. Accent is a stress of voice on some word or letter of a word that * More accurately spelled sithe. ----- p. 17 distinguishes it from others. If it falls on a vowel, it renders it long as in glory; if it falls on a consonant, the preceding vowel is short; as in habit. Simple dissyllables are generally accended on the first syllable: But there are many exceptions that are not reducible to rules. In the following catalogue, the nouns are accented on the first, and the verbs on the last syllable. Nouns. Verbs. A or an ab’stract To abstract’ ac’cent accent’ af’fix affix’ cem’ent cement’ con’duct conduct’ con’cert concert’ con’fine confine’ con’sort consort’ con’test contest’ con’tract contract’ copn’vert convert’ con’verse converse’ con’vict convict’ col’lect collect’ con’voy convoy’ com’pound compound’ de’sert desert’ des’cant descant’ dis’count discount’ di’gest digest’ ex’port export’ ex’tract extract’ es’say essay’ fer’ment ferment’ fre’quent frequent’ im’port import’ in’cense incense’ in’sult insult’ ob’ject object’ //B [2]// ----- [page image] p. 18 Nouns. Verbs. A or an out’work To outwork’ pre’sent present’ pro’duce produce’ Pro’ject project’ reb’el rebel’ rec’ord record’ ref’use refuse’ sub’ject subject’ sur’vey survey’ tor’ment torment’ trans’fer transfer’ trans’port transport’ u’nite unite’ POLYSYLLABLES. The accent of Polysyllables is determined principally by the final syllable. TERMINATIONS. Words ending in ed, ing, ful, less, ness, est, ist, bly, ly, are generally derived, and have the accent of their primitives; as have most words in ble. Words ending in sive, sion, tion, always have the accent on the last syllable but one. Words ending in cal, sy [except defy] my, ty and fy, generally have the accent on the last syllable but two. [sic] In ic. Words ending in ic, are accented on the syllable immediately preceding that termination: as syllabic, republic. Exceptions--Choleric, tumeric, rhetoric, lunatic, splenetic, heretic, politic, arithmetic, are accented on the last syllable but two. In ed. Words ending in ed are the past tenses and participles of verbs; but the letter e is usually omitted in the pronunciation, and the d joined to the preceding syllable; as establish'd. But after t and d the syllable ed is necesarily pronounced; as bated, preceded. In ance. Words ending in ance generally have the accent on the last syllable tu two; as arrogance. Exception 1. When the primative [sic] has its accent on the last syllable, the ----- p. 19 derivative has it on the last but one; as, appearance. Exception 2. When ance is preceded by two consonants, the accent lies on the first of htem; as, discordance. When i precedes ance, it is sometimes taken into the last syllable, and pronounced like y; as valiance, pronounced valyance. But in nouns formed of verbs of verbs ending in y accended, y is changed into i, which retains the accent, and forms a distinct syllable; as compliance, from comply. In ence. Polysyllables in ence have the accent on the last syllable but two; as benevolence. Exception--1st. Words derived retain the accent of their primitives; as adherence, from adhere. 2 When two consonatns precede ence, the accent is on the first; as effulgence; except concupisence. When ence is preceded by ci, they are changed into the sound of sh, and have the accent; as deficiense, pronounced defishence. In cle. Trisyllables in cle have the accent on the first; as miracle, oracle. Words of more than thre syllables, have the accent farther back: as tabernacle; but recepticle, and perhaps conventicle, should be accented on the second syllable. In dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, tle. Most words that have these terminations are dissyllables, and have the accent on the letter immediately preceding the termination; as cradle, ruffle, eagle, buckle, turtle, &c. Other words have the accent on the first syllable; as principle, participle, &c. In ure. These either follow their primitives; as intermixture, from intermix; or are accened as far back as the third or fourth syllable; as literature, judicature. But legislature is accented on the first and third. In ate. The accent in these words is for the most part on the last syllable but two; as felicitate, hesitate. But when two consonants precede the last syllable, the accent is on the first of them; as consummate. In ive. This termination in words of more syllables than one, is always sounded iv; as motive, pronounced motiv. In tive. Words ending in tive have the accent on the last syllable but two, or farther back; as positive, communicative. ----- [page image] p. 20 But when two consonants precede ive, the first has the accent; as, attentive; except a substantive, which is accented on the first syllable. In ial. This termination is commonly pronounced in one syllable.-- When preceded by c or t its sound is the same as shal; as judicial, pronounced judishal. The accent of such words is on the last syllable but one. I cannot agree with Mr. Sheridan in accounting ial a syllable in all cases. It appears to me that in connubial, ministerial, &c. ial cannot be pronounced in one syllable without a violent exertion of the organs, and after our utmost efforts we are obliged to make a great distinction of syllables. And if ial be considered as forming two syllables unless preceded by c or t, the accent falls on the last but two. The words denial, decrial have the accent on i. In ian. This ending with c or t before it, is pronounced shan: as magician, tertian; except an s precedes t, when the last syllable is pronounced chan, as christian, fustian; and the accent is on the last syllable but one. But the terminating syllable gian is pronounced ;jan; as, collegian.* With other letters it forms two syllables, and the accent is on the last syllable but two; as librarian. In en. This termination is very often contracted, by omitting e and joining n to the former syllable; as heav'n. But e ought not to be apostrophised either in poetry or prose. The accent is usually on the first syllable. In ion. This termination is usually but one syllable, and pronounced yun; as million, opinion. See table 31. When this is the case, the accent is on the syllable immediately preceding ion.-- When two or more consonatns precede ion, the first has the accent as quaternion. In sion. This termination is always pronounced ahun; except another consonant precedes it, when it sounds shun. See tables 26 and 28. In tion. This termination is invariably pronounced shun; as notion; except when preceded by s or x, when it is pronounced chun; as dijestion, commixtion. * It is said that dian is pronounced in the same manner as comedian, pronounced comejan. If so, how shall we pronounce trajedian? ----- p. 21 In eer and ier. All polysyllables in eer have the accent on the last syllable and all in ier, pronounced in one syllable; as domineer, cavalier, ier being pronounced as eer. In er. Words ending in er, being for the most part derived, follow their primatives [sic] in their accents; as politer for polite. In polysyllables not derived, the accent is generally on the last syllable but two; as astronomer. But this rule has exceptions. In or. When or is preceded by the vowel i, they form a syllable, which is pronounced yur; as senior. See table 31. In ous. This termination is always sounded us. When preceded by ce, ci or ti, it forms the syllable shus; as segacious, cetatious, sententious, pronounced segashus, cetashus, sentenshus. When the vowel i, and a consonant precede the terminations eous and ious, the accent is on the letter immediately preceding the consonant that is taken into the last syllable; as tenacious. But when ous is preceded by other letters, the accent is on the last syllable but two; as voluminous; except two consonants precede the last syllable, when the accent falls on the first of them; as tremendous. In ant. Polysyllables in ant have the accent on the last syllable but two; as extravagant; except when two consonants meet in the middle; as trumphant. But protestant is accented on the first: confidant, complaisant, have the accent on the last; as also Levant, a gallant; and compound words of two syllables; as recant. In ent. Words terminating in ent preceded by any consonant except m have the accent on the last syllable but one; as dependent.-- But words ending in ment, being gnerally formed from verbs, retain the accent of their primitives; as confinement from confine. When the vowel i precedes ment, the accent is on the last syllable but two; as compliment. When ent is preceded by ti, and ci, it forms with them the syllable shent; ancient, consentien, pronounced anshent, consenshent. Words in lent are accented on the last syllable but two, as benevolent; except when l is double; as repellent; and to this also excellent is an exception, being accented on the first. All words in ment not derived, have the accent on the last syllable but two; as testament. ----- [page image] p. 22 In ay. Compound words of two syllables have the accent on the last; as delay, holiday. In cy. Words in cy are usually nouns derived from verbs, nouns or adjectives, and retain the accent of their primitives; as intimacy, from intimate. In words not derived, the accent is back on the third or fourth syllable; as democracy, necromancy. Polysyllables in gy. These are also accented on the last syllable but two; as prodigy, chronolgy. In this termination g is soft unless preceded by another g; as foggy, when it is hard. In ny. Trisyllables ending in ny are accented on the first; as calumny. Polysyllables on the first; as matrimony; except anemony, hexagony, cosmogony, monotony, &c. which have the accent on the letter immediately preceding on. In ry. Trisyllables in ry have the accent on the last but two; as diary; polysyllables on the last but three: as epistolary. But carravansary, dispensary, aniversary, [sic] testamentary, parliamentary, are accented on the last but two. Adversary, commentary, momentary, voluntary, on the first. In words of four syllables, with the half accent on the last but one, the termination ary is sounded erry; thus monentary is pronounced momenterry. In ery. These have generally the accent on the last syllable but two; except deletery, monastery, baptistery, where it is on the first. Ery is always sounded erry. Terminations of the plural number, and of Verbs. In es. When es form a distinct syllable, as is always the case after sh, ch, x, s, c, g and z, it is pronounced iz; as brushes, churches, boxes, houses, places, sages, freezes; pronounced brushiz, churchiz, boxiz, housiz, placiz, sagiz, freeziz. But if es follow other letters e is silent, and s sounds like c or z. S sounds like c after the following letters: f, as in stuffs, t, as in shuts. k, as in packs. 1 p, as in hopes. th, as in truths. And if e precedes s, it alters not the sound of s; as hopes, where e is silent. ----- p. 2[3] S sounds like z, after the following letters: b, as in robs, pronounced robz d, as in beds bedz g, as in rags ragz l, as in seals sealz m, as in trims trimz n, as in wins winz r, as in wars warz v, as in leaves leavez th, as in tithes tithz ng, as in songs songz. And if e precedes a, it alters not the sound, as is observable in the word leaves, for e is silent. ay, as in delays, pronounced delaze oe, as in foes foze ue, as in glues gluze ow, as in glows gloze ow, as in vows vowze ew, as in screws scruze aw, as in laws lawz ay, as in prays praze oy, as in boys boyz The termination ies unaccented is invariably pronounced iz; thus, glories, vanities, varies, are pronounced gloriz, vanitiz, variz. If the termination is accented, or if it is a monosyllable, it is pronounced ize, the accent falling on i; thus, denies, complies, dies, are pronounced denize, complize, dize. Half Accent When the full accent is on the first syllable, there is generally a half accent on the third. When the full accent is on the second, the half accent is on the fourth. It is a general rule that every third syllable has some degree of accent, and in few or no words are there more than two succeding syllables unaccented. ----- [page image] p. 24 I N D E X O R K E Y. Long. | Oo proper. 1 1 1 | 6 6 6 a name, late | o or oo move, room e or ee here, feet | Oo short. i time, find | 7 7 7 o note, fort | oo books flood u or ew tune, new | u bush full y dry, defy | Short u. Short. | 9 9 9 2 2 2 | i sir bird a man, hat | o come love c men, let | e her i pit, pin | Long a. u tun, but | 10 10 10 y glory, Egypt | e there vein Broad a or aw. | Long e. 3 3 3 | 11 a bald tall | i fatigue pique o cost fought | oi} aw law | oy} diphthong; voice, joy Flat a. | ou} 4 4 4 | ow} Diphthong; loud, now a ask part | Short aw. | 5 5 5 | a what was | o not from | Explanation of the above Index. A figure stands as the invariable representative of a certain sound. The figure 1, represents the long sound of the letters a, e, i, o, u, or ew, and y; number 2, the short sound of the same characters; number 3, marks the sound of broad a, as in hall; number 4, represents the sound of a, as in not, what; number 6, represents the sound of o in move, commonly expressed by oo; number 7, represents the short sound of oo in root, bush; number 9, represents the sound of u short, made by e, i, and o, as in her, bird, come, pronounced hur, burd, cum; number 10 represents the first sound of a, made by e, as in their, vein, pronounced thare, wone; number 11, represents the French sound of i, which is the same as e long. See table 34th. The sounds of the diphthongs oi and ou are not represented by figures; they have one invariable sound, and are placed before ----- p. 25 the words where they occur in the tables. Silent letters are printed in Italic characters. Thus in head, goal, build, people, dumb, sight, the Italic letters have no sound. S, when printed in Italic is not silent, but pronounced like z as in devise pronounced devize. The letter e at the end of words of more syllables than one, is almost always silent; but serves often to lengthen a foregoing vowel as in bid bide; to soften c as in notice, or to soften g, as in homage; or to change the sound of th from the first to the second, as in bath, bathe. In the following work, when e final lengthens the foregoing vowel, that is, gives it its firs sound, it is printed in a Roman character, as in fate; but in all other cases it is printed in Italic. Ch have the English sound as in charm; except in the 33d and 34th tables. The sounds of th in this and thou, are all distinguished in the 12th and 32d tables; except in numerical adjectives. See the 51st table. The sound of aw is invariably that of broad a, and that of ew nearly the same as u long. N. B. Although one character is sufficient to express a simple sound, yet the combinations ee, aw, ew, oo, are so well known to express certain sounds, that it was judged best to print both letters in Roman Characters. Ck and ss are also printed in Roman characters, though one alone would be sufficient to express the sound. S Y L L A B L E S. A syllable is one letter, or so many letters as can be pronounced at one impulse of the voice; as, a, hand. Spelling is the art of dividing words into their proper syllables, in order to find their true pronunciation. GENERAL RULES. The best way of dividing words for children, is to divide them so as naturally to lead the learner into a right pronunciation.* Monosyllables are words of one syllable. Dissyllables are words of two syllables. Trissyllables are words of three syllables. Polysyllables are words of many syllables. Accent is the force or stress of voice that is laid upon any letter * This is Dr. Lowth's idea of spelling, and the sentiments of several literary gentlemen in America, upon whose authority I have ventured to reject all particular rules, and to divide the syllables as nearly as possible as the words are pronounced. //C// ----- [page image] p. 26 of a word; as de-liv-er, where the accent is on the letter v of the second syllable. Emphasis is a stronger force or percussion of the voice laid upon some significant words in a sentence. Accent regards some particular syllable or letter of a word; emphasis regards some particular words of a sentence. Cadence is a lower or weaker expression of the voice at the close of a sentence. Quantity is the time of pronouncing a syllable. The unaccented syllables of words are pronounced in half the time of the long accent. When the accent falls on a vowel it is long, as in glo-ry, ho-ly. When the accent falls on a consonant, the vowel of that syllable is short, as in cred-it, clust-er. All the vowels in the unaccented syllables are short, as in fu-tu-ri-ty, where all the vowels except u in the second syllable, are short. U in the first syllable has indeed its first sound, but is short and weak. P. S. The author is very sensible that the preceding rules, &c. are not within the capacities of young beginners. Children of eight or ten years of age may undoubtedly be taught to understand and use them with advantage. But they are rather designed for the master than the scholar; for if all instructors pronounced words with correctness and uniformity, there would be little danger that their pupils would acquire vicious habits of pronunciation. Note, The name of the letter r, that is ar, has led the common people to pronounce mercy, service, &c. marcy, sarvice. To prevent this, it is named in this work er. ----- p. 27 THE ALPHABET. Roman Letters. | Italic. | Names of the Letters. a A | a A | a b B | b B | b c C | c C | ce d D | d D | de e E | e E | e f F | f F | ef g G | g G | ge h H | h H | aytch or he i I | i I | i j J | j J | ja k K | k K | ka l L | l L | el m M | m M | em n N | n N | en o O | o O | o p P | p P | pe q Q | q Q | cu r R | r R | er [long s] s S | [long s] s S | es t T | t T | te u U | u U | u v V | v V | ve w W | w W | double u x X | x X | eks y Y | y Y | wi or ye z Z | z Z | ze &* | & | and Double Letters. ct, ff, ffi, ffl, fi, ss, sk, sb, sh, si, sl, fl, ssi, st. * This is not a letter, but a character standing for and. Children should therefore be taught to call it and; not and per se. ----- [page image] p. 28 T A B L E I. LESSON I. | LESSON IV. ba be bi bo bu by | ag eg ig og ug ca ce* ci co cu cy* | am em im om um da de di do du dy | an en in on un fa fe fi fo fu fy | ap ep ip op up ka ke ki ko ku ky | as es is os us | av ev iv ov uv LESSON II. | ax ex ix ox ux ga ge gi go gu gy | ha he hi ho hu hy | LESSON V. ma me mi mo mu my | bla ble bli blo blu na ne ni no nu ny | cla cle cli clo clu ra re ri ro ru ry | pla ple pli plo plu ta te ti to tu ty | fla fle fli flo flu wa we wi wo wu wy | sha she shi sho shu | LESSON III. | LESSON VI. ab eb ib ob ub | bra bre bri bro bru ac ec ic oc uc | cra cre cri cro cru ad ed id od ud | pra pre pri pro pru af ef if of uf | gra gre gri gro gru al el il ol ul | pha phe phi pho phu * A Child should be taught to pronounce ce, ci, cy, like se, si, sy ============================================================ T A B L E II. Words of Three and Four Letters. N. B. The following columns are to be read downwards or across the page, at the discretion of the instructor. A figure placed over the first word, marks the sound of the vowel in all that follow in that column. L E S S O N I. 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 5 bag big bog bug den cap bit dot fag dig dog dug hen gap cit get ----- p. 29 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 5 cag fig fog hug men lap hit hot gag jig hog lug pen map pit jot hag pig jog mug ten rap sit lot rag wig log tug wen tap wit not L E S S O N II. 2 5 2 2 2 5 2 2 Man sob bad bed bid fop bet but can job had fed did hop get cut pan mob lad led lid lop let hut ran rob mad red hid mop met nut van sob sad wed rid top yet put L E S S O N III. 2 2 2 2 2 5 2 Belt gilt band bled brag clod brad melt hilt hand bred drag plod clad felt milt land fled flag shod glad pelt jilt sand shed stag trod shad L E S S O N IV. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Clog glut blab chub damp bump bend flog shut drab club camp jump lend frog smut crab drub lamp lump mend grog slut scab rub ramp pump send L E S S O N V. 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 Bind bold call bill bent best brim find hold fall fill dent lest* grim mind fold gall hill lent nest skim kind sold hall kill sent jest swim wind gold tall mill went pest trim * Not least. //C 2// ----- [page image] p. 30 L E S S O N VI. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lace dice fade bide cage bake dine made mice bade ride page cake fine trace nice made side rage make pine pace rice wade wide wage wake wine L E S S O N VII. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Gale cape pipe cope dire date drive pale rape ripe hope hire hate five sale tape wipe rope fire fate hive vale spe type pope wire grate rive L E S S O N V. Cote file dame fare bore bone nose mote bile fame mare fore cone dose note pile came rare tore hone hose vote vile name tare wore tone rose ============================================================ T A B L E III. L E S S O N I. 2 2 1 1 1 1 Blank blush fleet brace price brine bank flush sheet chace slice shine frank plush street grace pace swine prank crush greet space twice twine L E S S O N II. 2 2 1 1 1 1 Band bless crime broke blade blame grand dress chime choke spade flame stand press prime cloke trade shame strand stress slime smoke shade frame ----- p. 31 L E S S O N III. 1 1 1 2 2 1 Brake blare brave hence mince bleed drake glare crave fence since breed flake share grave pence pince speed spake snare slave sense rince steed L E S S O N IV. 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 And ill age his rich less duke life act ink aim has held mess mule wife apt fact aid hast gift kiss rule safe ell fan ice hath dull miss time bade ebb left ale add till tush tune save egg self ace elf will hush mute here end else ape pen well desk maze robe ------------------------------------------------------------ T A B L E IV. Easy Words of Two Syllables, accented on the First. When the stress of voice falls on a vowel, it is necessarily long, and is marked by the figure 1. When the stress of the voice falls on a consonant, the preceding vowel is necessarily short, and is marked figure 2. No figures are placed over the vowels in unaccented syllables, because they are all short. It must be observed, however, that in unaccented terminating syllables, almost all vowels are pronounced like i and u short, thus: al is pronounced ul rural rurul et it fillet fillit This is the general rule in the language, originating doubtless, from this cause; that short i and u are pronounced with a less apperture or opening of the mouth, with less exertion of the organs, and consequently with more ease than the other vowels in these terminating syllables: for in order to pronounce them rightly, nothing more is requisite than to lay a proper stress of the voice on the accented syllable, and pronounce the unaccented syllables with more ease and rapidity. When any of these terminations are accented, as some of them are, the vowel retains its own sound; as compel, lament, depress, &c. The figures are placed over the vowels of the accented syllables; and one figure marks all the words that follow, till it is contradicted by another figure. ----- [page image] p. 32 1 li-are tra-der buf-fet Ba-ker li-on ti-dings bur-gess bri-er ma-ker to-ry car-rot ci-der mo-dish to-tal chan-nel cra-zy mo-ment tri-al chap-man cri-er ne-gro† tru-ant chap-ter cru-el o-ver tu-mult chat-ter dan-ger pa-gan tu-tor chil-dren di-al pa-per va-cant chil-ly di-et pa-pist va-grant cin-der du-ty pi-lot va-ry cut-ter dy-er pli-ant vi-per dif-fer dra-per po-et vi-tal din-ner fa-tal pre-cept vo-cal drum-mer fe-ver pru-dent wa-fer el-der fi-nal qui-et wa-ger em-bers fla-grant ra-ker wa-ges em-blem flu-ent re-al wo-ful en-ter fru-gal ri-der 2 fac-tor fu-el ri-ot ab-bot fag[-]got glo-ry ru-by ac-tor fan-cy gi-ant ru-in ad-der fan-tom gra-vy ru-ler ad-vent fat-ling gru-el ru-ral al-lum fer-ret ho-ly sa-cred am-ber fil-let hu-man* se-cret an-gel†† flan-nel i-cy sha-dy bal-lad flat-ter i-dol si-lent bank-er flut-ter i-vy so-ber ban-ter fran-tic ju-ry spi-der bap[-]tist fun-nel ju-lep sto-ry bat-ter gal-lop la-dy stu-dent bet-ter gam-mon la-zy stu-pid bit-ter gan-der le-gal ta-per blun-der gar-ret * Not yuman. † not negur. †† not anegel. ----- p. 33 gen-try ma-tron fat-tin tim-ber gib-bet mem-ber scan-dal trench-er gip-sy mer-ry scat-ter trum-pet glim-mer mil-ler sel-dom†† tum-bler glit-ter mit-ten self-ish tur-key gul-let mur-der sen-tence vel-lum gun-ner mud-dy shat-ter vel-vet gus-set mur-mur shep herd ves[-]sel gut-ter mut-ter shil-ling vic-tim ham-let num-ber sig-nal vic-tim han-sel nut-meg sil-ver ug-ly hap-py on-ly sin-ner ul-cer hin-der* pam-per slat-tern un-der hun-dred pan-nel slen-der up-per hun-ter pan-try slum-ber ut-most in-sect pat-tern smug-gler ut-ter in-step pat-ron spin-net wed-ding in-to pen-cil spir-it†† wil-ful jest-er pen-ny splen-did wis-dom kin-dred pep-per splen-dor 4 king-dom pil-fer splin-ter art-less kins-man pil-grim sub-ject art-ist lad-der plum-met sud-den af-ter lan-tern† pup-py suf-fer 5 lap-pet ram-mer sul-len chop-per lat[-]ter ran-som sul-try com-ment let-ter rec-tor sum-mon com-mon lim-ber rem-nant tal-ly con-duct lim-ner ren-der tan-ner con-cord lit-ter ren-net tat-tler con-gress luc-ky rub-bish tem-per con-quest mam-mon sad-dler ten-der con-sul man-na sal-ad ten-dril con-vert man-ner san-dy ten-ter doc-tor *Not Hender. †Not Lantorn. ††Not Sperrit. ----- [page image] p. 34 dros-sy jol-ly sot-tish per-fect† dol-lar mot-to 2 per-son fod-der on-set cler-gy ser-mon fol-ly of-fer er-rand* ser-pent fop-pish of-fice her-mit ser-vant hor-rid pot-ter ken-nel ver-min joc-ky rob-ber mer-cy† *Not Arrant. †Not Marcy, Parfect. &c. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE V. Easy Words of Two Syllables, accented on the Second. N. B. In general, when a vowel in an unaccented syllable stands alone, or ends a syllable,* it has its first sound as in pro-tect; yet, as we do not dwell upon the vowel, it is short and weka. When the vowel, in such syllables, is joined to a consonant, it has its second sound; as ad-dress. 1 con-jure e-lope in-vite A-base con-sume en-dure mis-name a-b-de cre-ate en-force mis-place a-dore de-cide en-gage mis-rule a-like de-clare en-rage mis-take al-lude de-duce en-rol mo-rose a-lone de-fy en-sue par-take a-maze de-fine en-tice per-spire as-pire de-grade en-tire po-lite a-tone de-range e-vade pre-pare at-tire de-note for-sworn pro-mote be-fore de-pute fore-seen re-bate be-have de-rive im-brue re-buke be-hold dis[-]like im-pale re-cite com-ply dis-place in-cite re-cline com-pute dis-robe in-flame re-duce com-plete dis-taste in-trude re-late con-fine di-vice in-sure re-ly *But if a vowel unaccented ends the word, it has its second sound as in cit-y. ----- p. 35 re-mind cor-rect in-struct trans-cend re-plete cor-rupt in-vest trans-gress re-vere de-duct mis-give trans-plant se-duce de-fect mis-print tre-pan sub-lime de-fend mis-trust un-apt su-pine de-press mo-lest un-bend su-preme de-tect neg-lect un-fit sur-vive di-rect ob-struct un-hing tra-duce dis-band oc-cur un-hurt trans-late dis-miss of-fence un-man un-bind dis-sent o-mit 4 un-told dis-tinct op-press de-bar un-fo[l]d dis-trust per-mit de-part un-glue dis-tract por-tend dis-arm un-kind dis-turb pre-tend dis-card un-lace ef-fect pre-dict em-balm un-ripe e-mit pro-ject em-bark un-safe en-rich pro-tect en-chant 2 e-vent pro-test en-large ab-rupt e-vince re-cant huzza ab-surd ful-fil re-fit un-arm ac-cept fi-nance re-lax un-bar ad-dict gal-lant re-mit 5 ad-dress him-self re-press ab-hor ad-mit im-pend re-tract re-volve a-mend im-plant re-trench re-volt a-midst im-press ro-bust des-pond as-cend im-print ro-mance un-lock be-set in-camp se-dan 2 ca-nal in-cur se-lect con-cert col-lect in-dent sub-ject de-fer com-pel in-fect sub-mit di-vert* con-duct in-fest sub-tract in-verse con-tend in-flict sus-pense in-vert con-tent in-still trans-act *Not di-vart, &c. ----- [page image] p. 36 per-vert re-fer de-ter in-ter per-verse con-fer in-fer ============================================================
Easy Words of Three Syllables; the full Accent on the First, and a weak Accent on the Third. 1 al-co-ran dig-ni-ty in-cre-ment cru-ci-fix an-i-mal dil-i-gent in-di-go cru-el-ty an-nu-al div-i-dend in-dus-try de-cen-cy ac-ci-dent dul-ci-mer in-fan-cy di-a-dem al-i-ment ec-sta-cy in-fan-try di-a-mond ad-a-mant ed-i-tor in-fi-del di-a-lect am-i-ty ef-fi-gy in-stru-ment dra-pe-ry am-nes-ty el-e-ment in-te-ger droll-e-ry ar-ro-gant el-e-gy in-tel-lect du-ti-ful bar-ris-ter em-bas-sy in-te-rest flu-en-cy but-ter-y eb-o-ny in-ter-val i-ro-ny ben-e-fit em-bry-o jus-ti-fy i-vo-ry big-a-my em-e-rald leg-a-cy la-zi-ness big-ot-ry em-pe-ror len-i-ty li[-]bra-ry but-ter-fly en-e-my lep-ro-cy lu-na-cy cal-i-co en-mi-ty lev-i-ty no-ta-ry cal-en-der en-ti-ty lib-e-ral nu-me-ral cab-i-net ep-i-gram lib-er-ty nu-tri-ment can-is-ter es-cu-lent lig-a-ment o-ver-plus can-i-bal ev-e-ry lin-e-al po-et-ry can-o-py fac-ul-ty lit-a-ny pri-ma-cy cap-i-tal fac-to-ry lit-e-ral pri-ma-ry chast-i-ty fam-i-ly lit-ur-gy pu-ri-ty cin-na-mon fel-o-ny lux-u-ry re-gen-cy cit-i-zen fes-ti-val man-i-fest ru-di-ment clar-i-fy fin-ic-al man-i-fold se-cre-cy clas-si-cal fish-e-ry man-ner-ly scru-ti-ny clem-en-cy gal-lant-ry mar-i-ner si-mo-ny cler-i-cal gal-le-ry med-i-cal stu-pi-fy cur-ren-cy gar-ri-son mel-o-dy tu-te-lar cyl-in-der gen-e-ral mem-o-ry ty-ran-ny den-i-zen gun-ne-ry mes-sen-ger va-can-cy det-ri-ment hap-pi-ness mil-le-ner va-gran-cy dif-fi-dent her-ald-ry min-e-ral 2 dif-fer-ent im-ple-ment min-is-ter ad-mi-ral dif-fi-cult im-pu-dent mus-cu-lar ----- p. 37 mys-te-ry rev-er-end vag-a-bond oc-cu-py nat[-]u[-]ral rit-u-al van-i-ty of-fi-cer pan[-]o-ply riv-u-let vic-to-ry or-a-tor par[-]a[-]dox sac-ra-ment vil-la[-]ny or-i-gin par-a[-]gon sal-a-ry vin-e-gar or-na-ment par[-]al[-]lax sat-is-fy ur-gen-cy or-re-ry par-al[-]lel sec-u-lar wag-gon-er ot-to-man par[-]a[-]pet sed-i[-]ment wil-der-ness pol-i-cy par-i-ty sen-a-tor 4 pol-i-tic pat[-]ri-ot sen-ti[-]ment har-bin-ger pop-u-lar ped-ant[-]ry sen-ti-nel har-mo-ny pov-er-ty ped-i-gree sev-er-al harp-si-chord prob-i-ty pen-al-ty sil-la-bub 5 prod-i-gal pen-u-ry sim-i-lar cod-i-cil prod-i-gy pes-ti-lent sin-gu-lar col-o-ny prom-i-nent pil-lo-ry sin-es-ter com-e-dy prop-er-ty prac-ti-cal slip-pe-ry com-ic-al pros-o-dy prin[-]ci[-]pal sub-si-dy con-ju-gal prot-est-ant pub-lic-an sum-ma-ry con-ti-nent quan-da-ry punc-tu-al sup-ple-ment con-tra-band 2 pun-gen-cy sym-me-try con-tra-ry cer-ti-fy* pyr-a[-]mid tam-a[-]rind doc-u-ment mer-cu-ry qua[-]dru-ped tap-es-try drop-si-cal per-fi-dy qual-i-ty tem-po-ral glob-u-lar per-ju-ry quan-ti-ty ten-den-cy glos-sa-ry per-ma-nent rad-ic-al ten-e-ment hos[-]pi-tal per-ti-nent rar-i-ty ter-ri-fy lot-te-ry ter-ma-gent reg-u-lar tes-ta-ment mon-u-ment rem-e-dy tit-u-lar nom-i-nal rib-ald-ry typ-i-cal oc-cu-lar * Not sartify, marcury, &c. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE VII. Easy Words of Three Syllables accented on the Second. 1 al-lure-ment a-tone-ment A-base-ment ap-pa-rent co-e-qual a-gree-ment ar-ri-val con-fine-ment al-li-ance a-maze-ment de-ci-pher //D// ----- [page image] p. 38 de-co-rum af-fect-ed en-camp-ment de-ni-al ag-gress-or e-quip[-]ment de-cri-al a-mend-ment er-ra-tic de-port-ment ap-pa-rel es-tab-lish de-po-nent ap-[p]en-dix hys-ter-ic dic-ta-tor as-cen-dant in-ces-sant di-plo-ma as-sas-sin in-cle-ment en-rol-ment as-sem-bly in-cum-bent en-tice-ment at-tach-ment in[-]ha-bit e-qua-tor at-tend-ant in-sip-ed [sic] he-ro-ic be-gin-ning in-trin-sic il-le-gal be-wil[-]der in-val-id im-pru-dent co-ha-bit ma-lig-nant oc-ta-vo col-lect-or mo-nas-tic op-po-nent con-sid-er noc-tur-nal po[-]ma-tum con-tin-gent pa-cif-ic pri-me-val con-tract-or pe-dant-ic re-ci-tal de-cant-er po-lem-ic re-li-ance de-lin-quent pre-cept-or re-qui-tal de-liv-er pro-hib-it spec-ta-tor de-mer-it pro-lif-ic sub-scri-ber de-tach-ment pro-tect-or sur-vi-vor di-lem-ma pu-is-sant tes-ta-tor di-mi-nish re-dund-ant tes-ta-trix dis-sent-er re-fresh-ment trans-la-tor dis[-]tem-per re-lin-quent trans-pa-rent dis-tin-guish re-luc-tant tri[-]bu-nal di-ur-nal re-mem-ber ver-ba-tim dog-ma-tic re-ple-nish vol-ca-no do-mes-tic re-plev-in un-e-qual dra-ma-tic re-pug-nant un-mind-ful e-ject-ment re-pub-lish 2 em-bar-rass ro-man-tic a-ban-don em-bel-lish se-ques-ter ac-cus-tom em-pan-nel spe-ci-fic ----- [p. 39] sur-ren-der 5 im-mor-al to-bac-co a-bo-lish im-pos-tor trans-cen-dant ac-com-plish im-prop-[-]er trans-gres-sor ad-mon-ish in-con-stant tri-um-phant as-ton-ish in-sol-vent um-brel-la de-mol-ish un-god-ly im-mo-dest ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE VIII. Easy Words of Three Syllables, accented on the First and Third. 1 o-ver-take in-di-rect al-a-mode re-con-cile in-cor-rect dev-o-tee ref-u-gee in-ter-mix dis-a-gree su-per-cede o-ver-turn dom-i-neer su-per-scribe o-ver-run im[-]ma-ture vol-un-teer re-col-lect im-por-tune un[-]der-mine re-com-mend in-com-mode 2 rep-re-hend in[-]ter-cede ap-pre-hend su-per-add in-tro-duce con-de-scend un-der-stand mis-ap-ply con-tra-dict un-der-sell mis[-]be-have dis-pos-sess ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE IX. Easy Words of Four Syllables; the full Accent the First, and the half Accent on the Third. 1 ac-ri-mo-ny cer-e-mo-ny Lu-mi-na-ry ad-mi-ral-ty cus-tom-a-ry mo-ment-a-ry ad-ver-sa-ry del-i-ca-cy nu-ga-to-ry al[-]i-mo-ny dif-fi-cul-ty 2 al-le-go-ry dil-a-to-ry ac-cu-ra[-]cy bre-vi-a-ry ep-i-lep-sy ----- [page image] p. [4]0 em-is-sa-ry pres-a-t-ry 5 ig-no-mi-ny pur[-]ga-to-ry com[-]ment-a-ry in-ti-ma-cy sal-u-ta-ry com-mis-sa-ry in-tri-ca-cy sanc-tu-a-ry con[-]tro-ver-sy in-vent-o-ry sec-re-ta-ry mon-as-te-ry man-da-to-ry sed-en-ta-ry ob-sti-na-cy ma-tri-mo-ny stat-u-a-ry prom-is-so-ry mis-cel-la-ny sump-tu-a-ry prom-on-to-ry mil[-]i-ta-ry ter-ri[-]to[-]ry vo-lun[-]ta-ry pat-ri-mo-ny tes-ti-mo-ny 2 plan-et-a-ry rib-u-ta-ry mer-cen-a-ry preb-end-a-ry The words het-e-ro-dox, lin-e-a-ment, pa-tri-ot-ism, sep-tu-a-gint, have the full accent on the first syllable, and the half accent on the last. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE X. Easy Words of Four Syllables, accented on the Second. 1 fu-u[-]ri-ty va-cu-i-ty a-e-ri[-]al gram-ma-ri-an va-ri-e-ty an-nu-i-ty gra-tu-i-ty ab-surd-i-ty ar-mo-ri-al his[-]to-r-ian ac-tiv-i-ty cen-tu-ri-on li-bra-ri-an ac-cess[-]a-ry col-le-gi-al ma-te-ri-al ac-cess-o-ry com-mu-ni-cant ma-tu-ri-ty ad-min-is-ter com-mu-ni-ty me-mo-ri-al ad[-]ver-si-ty con-gru-i-ty mer-cu-ri-al a-dult-e-ry con-nu-bi-al ob-scu-ri-ty af-fin[-]i-ty cor-po-re-al ob-du-ra-cy a-nal-o-gy cre-du-li[-]ty pro-pri-e-ty a-nat-o-my cri-te[-]ri-on se-cu-ri-ty an-tag-o-nist e-le-gi-ac so[-]bri-e-ty ar-til-le-ry ----- p. 41 a[-]vid-i-ty fi-del-i-ty re-cip-ro-cal bar-ba-ri-ty for-mal-i-ty re-pub-li-can bru-tal-i-ty fru-gal-i-ty sab-bat-ic-al ca-lam[-]i-ty gram-mat-i-cal sa-tan-i-cal cap-ti-vi-ty ha-bit-u-al scur-ril-i[-]ty ce-lib-a[-]cy hos-til-i-ty se-ve-ri-ty ci-vil-i-ty hu-man-i-ty sig-nif-i-cant cli-mac-ter-ic hu-mil-i-ty se-ren-i-ty co-in-ci-dent i-den-ti-ty sin[-]cer-i-ty col-lat-e-ral im-men-si-ty so[-]lem-ni-ty com-pa-ri-son im-ped-i-ment su-prem-a-cy com-pet-i-tor ju-rid-ic-al ter-res-tri-al com-pul-so-ry le-vit-i-cal tran-quil=i=ty con[-]jec[-]tu-ral lon-gev-i-ty ty-ran-nic-al con-spi-ra[-]cy ma-lev[-]o-lent va-lid[-]i-ty con-sit-u-ent ma-lig-ni-ty ve-nal-i-ty de-cliv-i-ty mil-len-ni-um vi-cin-i-ty de[-]lin-quen-cy mo-ral-i-ty 5 de-pra-vi-ty mu-nif-i-cent a-pol-o-gy di-am-e-ter na-tiv-i-ty a-pos-ta-cy dis-par0i-ty ne-ces-si[-]ty as-trol-o-gy di[-]vin-i-ty no-bil-i-ty as-tron-o-my ef-fec-tu-al nu-mer-ic-al bi-og-ra-phy e-lec-tri-cal om-nip-o-tent com-mo-i-ty em-pyr-e-al par[-]ti[-]cu-lar con-com-i-tant e-pis-co-pal per-pet-u-al de-moc[-]ra-cy e-pit-o-me po-lit-ic[-]al de-spond-den-cy e-quiv-a-lent po-lig-a[-]my e-con-o-my e-quiv-o-cal pos-ter-i-ty ge-om-e-try e-van-ge-list pre-cip-i-tant hy-poc-ri-cy e-vent-u-al pre-dic[-]a-ment ma-jor-i[-]ty fa-tal-i-ty pro-fun-di-ty me-trop-o-lis fer-til-i-ty pros-per-i-ty mi-nor-i-ty fes-tiv-i-ty ra-pid-i-ty mo-nop-o-ly //D 2// ----- [page image] p. 42 pre-dom-i-nate 2 hy-per-bo-le pri[-]or-i-ty ad-ver-si-ty pro-ver-bi-al tau-tol[-]o-gy di-ver-si-ty sub-ser-vi-ent ver-bos-i-ty e-ter-ni-ty ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE XI. Easy Words of Four Syllables, the full Accent on the Third, and the half Accent on the First. 1 mal-e-fac-tor An-te-ce-dent man[-]i[-]fest-o ap-pa-ra-tus mem-o-ran-dum com-men-ta-tor or-ri-ent-al me-di-a-tor or-na-ment-al sa-cer-do-tal pan-e-gyr-ic su-per-i-sor pred-e-ces-sor 2 sci-en-tif-ic ac[-]ci-dent-al sys-tem-a[-]tic ar-o-mat-ic 5 cal-i-man-co cor-res-pon-dent de-tri-ment-al hor-i-zon-tal en[-]er[-]get-ic 2 fun-da-ment-al u-ni-ver-sal in-u-en-do ------------------------------------------------------------ pointing hand Having proceeded through tables comprising easy words, from one to four syllables, let the learner begin the following tables, which consist of more difficult words. In these the child will be much assisted by a knowledge of the figures, and the use of the Italics. If the instructor should think it useful to let his pupils read some of the easy lessons before they have finished spelling, he may divide their studies--let them spell one part of the day and read the other. ----- p. 43 TABLE XII. Difficult and irregular Monosyllables. I would recommend this table to be read sometimes across the page to make children attentive to the different ways of expressing the same sound, &c. 1 ail claim flea veal Bay hail maim key weal day tail waif spray zeal hay flail stage stay peal lay snail gauge stray beal say laird plague stray ceil may aid vague gay eel pay maid bait flay staid pray stair state play laid sway swear great beard braid fray wear gait dail air clay bear wait tail chair way tear plait leap fair ray brain strait neap hair bray chain graze reap pair stray grain praise cheap squeal slay slain raise heap beer spay train baize steel peer yea rain rase kneel deer jail main maize teal fear pail plain shave feel dear fail sprain brave keel hear rail stain knave deal rear frail twain break heal veer wail vain steak meal drear mail wain be peel clear nail paint pea reel shear trail quaint sea seal steer bail aim tea steal bier ----- [page image] p. 44 year plead deaf heat sleeve cheer deem leaf teat grieve hear seem sheaf beak reeve blear cream fief leak leave ear dream lief weak lieve fear stream neif bleak reave smear beam plea sneak beeves spear trait flee speak eaves lain haste bee freak greaves pain paste deep squeak freeze strain wait keep reef sneeze gain chaste weep cheek breeze blain taste steep wreak ease drain traipse sleep fleak squeeze fain change creep screak cheese faint strange sheep shriek frieze taint blaze fleece sleek please faint steam peace streak seize tear seam cease seen ease queer gleam lease bean speech deed scream geese clean leach feed fleam niece mien beach need fream piece queen reach weed ream grease wean teach bead team crease keen screech lead least meet glean breach read feast bleat splean bleach seed yeast cheat dean each creed beast treat green peach heed priest meat quean field mead east seat yean yield knead reef feat lean shield reed grief beat mean wield bleed brief neat heave fiend breed chief feet cleave league ----- [p. 45] teague bright snow more told tweag fight stow four cold leash blight strow pour mould liege fright dough door port dry wight sloe roar sport bye wright mole boar court fly clime pole hoar goad cry rhime soal oar load sky climb foal soar road lie smile goal oat woad die stile roll boat soap eye guile poll doat froze buy mild boll goat close try child toll moat prose fry wild foul bloat chose pie stride scroll float coach wry bride coal joak poach high guide shoal oak roach nigh guise bowl croak broach sigh fro prowl cloak folks by doe stroll soak coax fie toe troll tone foam hie bow brogue own roam vie mow rogue known comb light tow vogue groan loam might row most blown shorn height owe post flown sworn night slow host mown mouth right glow ghost sown force sight blow boast moan course tight slow roast loan hoarse flight know coast shown source sleight grow toast old coarse ----- [page image] p. 46 board yew hence stench wink hoard chew pence quench pink goard clew fence wench cinque sword ewe lapse wrench prism holme slue flat drench schism oaf mew gnat fetch chip loaf cure sash sketch skip due pure clash wretch ship true your gash spend strip you rude strap friend scrip glue prude wrap blend spin sue shrewd shall badge chin dew crude bled fadge twin few feud dead edge skin new fheum stead hedge guilt lieu muse read wedge built view bruise tread sledge quilt flew use bread ledge build grew cruise* spread sedge drift screw spruce shred pledge shift brew juice head dredge swift blew use cleanse fledge twist drew cruse† realm bridge wrist knew sluice drachm bilge risque crew fruit deck helve shrill hew bruit neck twelve skill strew suit peck delve spill shrew mewl check valve chill flew 2 speck guess ditch blue jamb wreck breast pitch rue lamb meant guest witch shrew plaid sense sweat twitch spew limb tense debt niche stew gaunt bench stem hinge tew dense clench phlegm singe *A voyage. †A small cup. ----- p. 47 cringe dost drudge tost spawn fringe 2 shrub war yawn twinge curl scrub for† laud glimse hurl bulge nor fraud since churl gurge taught broad rince drum surge caught cord wince dumb purge brought lord teint crumb plunge fought ward brick numb curse ought gauze stick plumb purse wrought cause kick much 3 fought pause wick such law groat clause quick touch shaw fraught torch spit crutch taw naught scorch knit burst maw form gorge twit stuff raw storm all five snuff pay swarm tall sieve rough saw warm fall ridge tough awe born hall 1 plump gnaw corn gall none stump straw warn pall stone trump flaw corse ball home lurch draw horn call bolt church chaw morn wall colt young claw fawn maul joult gulph craw lawn scrawl boult nymph haw dawn sprawl dolt hymn jaw pawn squall moult judge cost* sawn yawl coat grudge lost brawn awl * Perhaps o and a in the words cost, horn, warm, &c. may be considered as coming more properly under figure 5: but the liquids that follow them have such an effect in lengthening the syllable, that it appears more natural to place them under figure 3. A similar remark applies to a in bar. † These words, when unemphatical, are necessarily short. ----- [page image] p. 48 haul calk harp half march stall daub bard calf parch small bawd card laugh starch crawl warp lard craft harsh brawl wasp guard shaft charge bawl want pard waft large caul 4 yard raft barge drawl sauce branch raught farce wart balm launch aft parse sort calm staunch haft calve short palm haunch pant halve quart psalm blanch grant salve snort qualm craunch slant gape bald alms carp ant earn scald bask harp aunt darn off cask sharp daunt sarn oft ask scarp flaunt yarn lost mask carve haunt bar soft task starve jaunt far cross ark arm taunt scar dross bark harm vaunt spar moss dark charm cast star loss hark farm past tar horse mark art last czar corpse lark cart blast car dwarf park dart fast char cough spark hart gast jar trough arc mart mast mar fork shark part mass par cork stark tart pass barb hawk asp start lass garb balk clasp smart brass carle walk hasp chart class marle talk rasp heart glass snarl chalk gasp staff grass chance stalk grasp chaff arch dance ----- [p. 49] prance bond noon groove rook lance fond loon noose shook glance pond swoon choose croup trance wand bourn lose wood scarf storm poor boose stood laste wrong tour coze good 1 botch moor ouse hood dock scotch boor coo could mock mosque cool two would clock blot fool do should shock yacht tool shoe wolf knock scoat stool loo hoof drop halt pool woo roof crop salt spool proof loof shop malt droop woof soon swap fault scoop loose hoop† wan vault troop goose coop swan false loop moose poop gone bronze soup spoon full wash 6 group roost bull swash doom hoop* 7 pull watch room boot root wool was boom coot foot bush waft loom toot shoot push knob bloom hoot book puss swab groom moot cook 2 wad womb food hook earl dodge tomb rood look pearl lodge broom brood took skirt†† bodge spoon mood brook verse podge boon move crook fierce fosse moon prove stook pierce * To cry out, but more commonly spelt whoop. † Of a cask. †† Under this figure, in the words skirt, firm &c. i has the sound of second e. //E// ----- [page image] p. 50 tierce wert world tete quoif herse 9 front feint ou & ow terse run ront veil now verge son wont cow serge ton dove oi & oy how dirge won love oil bow virge done shove spoil mow vert one* glove soil sow term come twirl broil vow firm some dunce toil brow germe bomb once† foil plow sperm clomb monk boil gough strip rhomb tongue coil slough chip dirt birch join out jerk shirt sponge coin stout perk flirt 10 loin oust smerk wort heir groin trout yerk birt trey boy gout quirk spirt sley joy pout herb squirt prey toy clout verb kirk grey coy rout fir work weigh cloy shout myrrh bird eigh buoy spout fern word neigh point scout earn first rein joint doubt yearn worst vein voice bout earn worse feign choice drought†† stern blood deign moist our kern flood skein hoist four quern sir reign joist brown search her eight moise crown perch stir freight quoit drown swerve worm streight coif frown * Pronounced wun. † Pronounced wunce. †† Pronounced drouth. ----- p. 51 clown spouse hound fowl flounce gown drowse pound scowl couch town cloud round cowl vouch house crowd sound growl slouch louse loud ground howl pouch mouse proud wound* bounce gouge douse shroud foul ounce browse bound bowl pounce * The fashionable pronunciation is woond; but I choose to follow analogy. ============================================================ MONOSYLLABLES IN TH. The following have the first Sound of th, viz. as in thick, thin. 1 growth thank thatch filth throw quoth thick thill frith truth ruth thrift third plinth youth teeth thumb thrill splinth sheath thane thump thrust 3 heath thowl length thwak loth both thrave strength tilth cloth oath threw breath withe moth forth thrice death doth broth fourth thrive health smith sloth three throne wealth thrust troth throat throe threat thrum north theme throve hath thread thaw thigh 2 rath thrash thought thief thing pith depth thorn faith think with* width froth blowth thin theft breadth throll * In this word th has its first sound before a consonant, as in withstand; and its second sound before a vowel, as in without, with us. But in other compound words, th generally retains the sound of its primitive. ----- [page image] p. 52 thwart garth 6 girth thirl warmth lath tooth mirth ou 4 wrath through 9 south swath 5 2 third mouth path throb earth thirst hearth throng dearth worth bath thong birth month The following have the second Sound of th, as in thou. 1 those wreath the 10 Thy tithe writhe them they bathe these seethe thence there lathe though breathe than their swathe thee 2 6 ou clothe lithe this booth thou loathe hithe that smooth mouth meethe blithe then soothe teeth* thine thus * The noun teeth has the first sound of th, and the verb to teeth its second sound. The same is observed of mouth and to mouth[.] This is the reason why these words are found under both heads. The words mouth, moth, cloth, cath, path, swath, bath, lath have the first sound of th in the singular number, and the second in the plural. N. B. Foreigners are very apt to pronounce th like d as, dis dat, for this, that. A little care will break this habit both in children and adults. ============================================================ TABLE XIII. Lessons of easy Words, to teach Children to read, and to know their Duty. LESSON I. No man may put off the law of God. My joy is in his law all the day. O may I not go in the way of sin. Let me not go in the way of ill men. ----- p. 53 II. A bad man is a foe to the law. It is his joy to do ill. All men go out of the way. Who can say he has no sin? III. The way of man is ill. My son, do as you are bid. But if you are bid, do no ill. See not my sin, and let me not go to the pit. IV. Rest in the Lord, and mind his word. My son, hold fast the law that is good. You must not tell a lie, nor do hurt. We must let no man hurt us. V. Do as well as you can, and do no harm. Mark the man that doth well, and do so too. Help such as want help, and be kind. Let your sins past, put you in mind to mend. VI. I will not walk with bad men; that I may not be cast off with them. I will love the law and keep it. I will walk with the just and do good. VII. This life is not long, but the life to come has no end. We must pray for them that hate us. We must love them that love not us. We must do as we like to be done to. VIII. A bad life will make a bad end. He must live well that would die well. He doth live ill that doth not mend. //E 2// ----- [page image] p. 54 In time to come we must do no ill. IX. No man can say that he has done no ill. For all men have gone out of the way. There is none that doth good: no, not one. If I have done harm, I must do it no more. X. Sin will lead us to pain and woe. Love that which is good and shun vice. Hate no man, but love both friends and foes. A bad man can take no rest day nor night. XI. He that came to save us will wash us from all sin; I will be glad in his name. A good boy will do all that is just; he will flee from vice; he will do good, and walk in the way of life. Love not the world, nor the things that are in the world; for they are sin. I will not fear what flesh can do to me; for my trust is in him who made the world. He is nigh to them that pray to him, and praise his name. XII. Be a good child: mind your book; love your school, and strive to learn. Tell no tales; call no ill names; you must not lie, nor swear, nor cheat, nor steal. Play not with bad boys; use no ill words at play; spend your time well; live in peace; and shun all strife. This is the way to make good men love you, and save your soul from pai and woe. XIII. A good child will not lie, swear nor steal. He ----- p. 55 will be good at home, and ask to read his book, when he gets up, he will wash his hands and face clean; he will comb his hair, and make haste to school; he will not play by the way, as bad boys do. XIV. When good boys and girls are at school, they will mind their books, and try to learn to spell and read well, and not play in time of school. When they are at church, they will sit, kneel or stand still; and when they are at home, will read some good book, that God may bless them. XV. As for those boys and girls that mind not their books, and love not church and school, but play with such as tell tales, tell lies, curse, swear and steal they will come to some bad end, and must be whipt till they mend their ways. ============================================================ TABLE XIV. Words of Two Syllables, accented on the First. 1 dai-ly hind-most mea-zles A-cre da-sy hoar-y ni-ter a-pron dea-con hu-mor oat-meal bare-foot dot-age jew-el past-ry beast-ly eve-ning jui-cy pi-ous brew-er fa-vor knave-ry peo-ple beau-ty fla-vor knight-hood plu-mage brok-en fea-ture li-ver pa-rent boat-swain fe-male la-bor pro-logue bow-sprit for-ward le-gion quo-ta brave-ry grate-ful may-or rhu-barb ca-ble griev-ous me-ter ri-fle cheap-en gno-mon mi-ter rogu-ish ----- [page image] p. 56 re-gion bus-tle driv-en hind-rance sea-son cam-el dud-geon hus-band spright[-]ly cap-tain dun-geon hum-ble sti-fle cen-sure drunk-ard husk-y ste-ple [sic] chap-el dust-y im-age bol-ster chast-en ec-logue in-stance coul-ter cher-ish en-gine in-ward slave-ry chim-ney en-trails isth-mus shoul-der car-ry er-ror jeal-ous tai-lor car-riage fash[-]ion jour-nal trea-ty ci-ty fau-cet knuc-kle wea-ry clam-our fat-ten knap-sack wo-ful clean-ly fes-ter lan-guage wri-ter cred-it fer-riage lan-gour wain-scot crev-ice fid-dle land-lord 6 crick-et flag-on le-vel ab-sence crust-y frec-kle lim-it ab-bey chrys-tal frus-trate lus-ter am-ple cup-board fur-lough lunch-eon asth-ma cus-tom ges-ture mad-am an-cle crib-bage gante-lope mal-ice bal-ance cul-ture gin-gle man-gle bel-fry cous-in glis-ten mas-tiff bash-ful cut-lass grand-eur mel-on bish-op dam-age grav-el mer-it blem[-]ish dam-ask grum-ble min-gle blus-ter dam-sel guin-ea mis-tress brim-stone dam-son gud-geon mis-chief brick-kiln dan-druff hand-ful mus-ket blud-geon dac-tyl hab-it mus-lin bel-lows debt-or has-soc mus-ter bis-cuit dim-ple hav-oc mar-riage brit-tle dis-tance heif-er nev-er buck-ram dou[-]ble heav-y nim-ble ----- p. 57 pad-lock scis-sors ven-tur-e morn-ing pam-phlet seven-night vin-tage mor-tal pen-ance scep-ter vis-it mort-gage pes-ter spec-ter vis-age naugh-ty phren-zy scrib-ble vict-uals saw-yer pis-mire scuf-fle ven-geance tor-ment plan-et sin-ew veni-son wa-ter pleas-ant sim-ple vine-yard 4 peas-ant sin-gle waist-coat sau-cy pin-cers scep-tic wed-lock sau-cer prat-tle smug-gle wick-ed an-swer pun-ish span-gle wran-gle barb-er puz-zle spig-ot wrap-er brace-let pic-ture spit-tle wres-tle cart-er pur-chase spin-dle wrist-band cham-ber prac-tise squad-ron wea-pon craft-y phthis-ic sup-ple wid-geon char-coal punch-eon subt-le zeal-ot flask-et quick-en stur-geon zeal-ous gar-land quad-rant sur-geon zeph-yr ghast-ly ram-ble tal-ent yeom-an gar-ment rap-id tal-on 3 har-lot rat-tle tan-gle bor-der har-vest reb-el tat-tle cor-ner jaun-dice rel-ish tav-ern slaugh-ter mar-gin rig-our tempt-er daugh-ter mar-ket ris-en ten-ant au-tumn mas-ter riv-er til-age for-tress mar-quis riv-et tip-ple for-tune par-cel ruf-fle tres-pass gau-dy par-don res-in trou-ble geor-gic par-lour sam-ple twink-ling gor-geous part-ner salm-on trans[-]port lau-rel pas-ture satch-el trun-cheon lord-ship psalm-ist scab-bard ven-om haugh-ty scar-let ----- [page image] p. 58 slan-der hon-or bo-som hon-ey 5 knowl-edge bush-y sove-reign al-way lodg-er worst-ed skir[-]mish bon-fire mod-est cush-ion shov-el cob-ler mod-ern bul-let squir-rel clos-et mon-strous bul-lock vir-gin col-league nov-el bul-ly wor-ship com-et nov-ice bul-wark wan-der com-rade prof-fer butch-er 10 con-quer prog-ress coop-er hei-nous cock-swain prom-ise cuck-oo neigh[-]bor con-duit pros-pect 2 ou ver-min cop-y pros-per ver-dict coun-cil con-trite stop-page ver[-]juice coun-ter con-fin spon-dee vir-tue coun-ty doc-trine wan-der ker-nel dough-ty flor-id wan-ton 9 drow[-]sy fon-dle war-rant con-jure moun-tain fore-head squan-der cov-er show-er frol-ic yon-der cir-cuit flow-er fal-chion 6 fir-kin bow-er grog-ram gloom-y com-pass pow-er gos-lin wo-man com-fort oy gos-head boo-by bor-ough voy-age hom-age 7 dir-ty hon-est bush-el gov-ern ============================================================ T A B L E. XV. Proverbs, Counsels, and Maxims in Words of One Syllable. I. HOT love is soon cold. Hope well and have well. ----- p. 59 The best may mend. Look ere you leap. Soon hot soon cold. All is well that ends well. All cannot hit the mark[.] Soft and fair goes far, [sic] Hold fast when you have it. Ill news will come too soon. Give an inch and take an ell. A good man is a wise man. II. A good cow may have a bad calf. You tell a tale to a deaf man. You have hit the nail on the head. You must not buy a pig in a poke. Help came when hope was gone. Two eyes see more than one. Time and tide will wait for no man. He is a fool that will not give an egg for an ox. You hold with the hare and run with the dogs. One may as well sit still as rise up and fall. As you brew so you must brake. [sic] A man may buy gold too dear. You cannot have more of the cat than her skin. You can spy a mote in his eye, but cannot see a beam in your own. He may well swim that is held up by the chin. III. A bird that can sing and will not must be made to sing[.] An ill life has an ill end. When wine is in, wit is out. As you make your bed so you must lie. A cat may look on a king. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. ----- [page image] p. 60 Wit once bought is worth twice taught. A wise head makes a close mouth. Let not your tongue cut your throat. He that lies down with dogs, must rise up with fleas. If once a man fall, all will tread on him. There are more ways to the wood than one. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. As the old cock crows the young one learns. When the sky falls we will catch larks. IV. The more haste the worse speed. Love will creep where it dares not go. Tread on a worm and it will turn. You set the fox to guard the geese. New lords new laws. Fair words and foul play cheat both young and old, [sic] Pride will have a fall. He swims with the tide.'Out of sight out of mind. Win gold and wear it. Harm watch harm catch. Hope keeps the heart whole. Rome was not built in one day. Fair words hurt not the mouth. A burnt child dreads the fire. Make hay while the sun shines. V. The tree is known by its fruit. A new broom sweeps clean. When the storm is past then comes a calm. Look not a gift horse in the mouth. Hear with both ears and then judge. Do not think to catch old birds with chaff. Haste makes waste, and waste brings want. ----- p. 61 It is a base bird that fouls its own nest. A friend is not so soon got as lost. He that will not work should not eat. It is good to have two strings to one's bow. It is hard to teach an old dog new tricks. No sweat no sweet; no pains no gains; no cross no crown. A man may love his house well, though he rides not on the ridge. VI. A wise man hath his tongue in his heart, but a fool hath his heart on his tongue. Be more apt to hear than to speak, and to learn than to teach. Youth, like the spring will soon be past. All is not gold that shines. What is bred in the bone stays long in the flesh. He that would thrive must rise at five. Do all you can to be good, and you will be so. Mark the man that doth well & walk thou in his ways. He that will not when he may, When he would he shall have nay. Let the time past put thee in the mind of the ill thou hast done, and do so no more. VII. The time will come when we must all be laid in the dust. Keep thy tongue from ill, and thy lips from guile. Let thy words be plain, and true to the thoughts of the heart. He that strives to vex or hurt those that sit next to him, is a bad boy and will meet with foes, let him go where he will; but he that is kind, and loves to live in peace will make friends of all that know him. //F// ----- [page image] p. 62 A clown will not make a bow or thank you when you give him what he wants; but he that is well bred will do both. He that speaks loud in school will not learn his own book well, nor let the rest learn theirs; but those that make no noise will soon be wise, and gain much love and good will. VIII. Shun the boy that tells lies or speaks bad words; or he would soon bring thee to shame. He that does no harm shall gain the love of the whole school; but he that strives to hurt the rest shall meet with his match[.] He that lies in bed when he should go to school is not wise; but he that shakes off sleep shal [sic] I have praise. He is a fool that does not choose the best boys when he goes to play; for bad boys will cheat and lie, and swear, and strive to make him as bad as themselves. Slight no man, for you know not how soon you may stand in need of his help. IX. If you have done wrong, own your fault; for he that tells a lie to hide it, makes two. He that tell[s] th[e] truth is a wise child; but he that tells lies, will not be heard when he speaks the truth. When you are at school, make no noise; but keep your seat and mind your book; for what you learn will do you good when you grow a man. Play no tricks on them that sit next you; for if you do, good boys will shun you as they would a dog that they knew would bite them. He that hurts you at the same time that he calls you his friend, is worse than a snake in the grass. ----- p. 63 Be kind to all men and hurt not thyself. A wise child loves to learn his book; but the fool would choose to play with toys. X. Sloth keeps such a hold of some clowns, that they lie in bed when they should go to school; but a boy that wants to be wise will drive sleep far from him. Love him that loves his book, and speaks good words and does no harm; for such a friend may do thee good all the days of thy life. Be kind to all as far as you can; you know not how soon you may want their help; and he that has the good will of all that know him, shall not want a friend in the time of need. If you want to be good, wise and strong, read with care such books as have been made by wise and good en; think of what you read in your spare hours; be brisk at play, but do not swear; and waste not too much of your time in bed. ============================================================ TABLE XVI. Words of Two Syllables, accented on the Second. 1 as-sign be-low con[-]strain ac-quire af-ray be-stow de-ceive a-bate a-vail be-hea de[-]ceit a-buse a-wake con-sign de-crease a-dieu a-way com-plain de[-]light af-fair al-ly cam-paign de-pose af-fright be-lieve con-dign de-sign ap-proach be-lief con-cise de-sire ar-raign be-nign con-ceit de-vise a-rise be-siege con-fuse dis-clam ----- [page image] p. 64 dis-course re-sign de-bauch 9 dis-may sup-pose per-form a-bove dis-own tran-scribe re-ward a-mong dis-play trans-pose sub-orn be-come dis-pose un-close trans-form be-love en-close un-tie 4 10 en-croach un-true e-clat con-vey en-dear up-right ad-vance sur-vey en-treat 1 a-far in-vegh ex-cise ad-journ a-larm oi ex-pose a-byss guit-ar ap-point in-crease at-tack in-graft a-noint in[-]dict at-tempt re-mark a-void im-pair a-venge sur-pass em-broil in-fuse ad-ept ca-tarrh en-joy in-scribe be[-]head re-gard de-stroy ma-lign be-twixt 6 de-coy ob-tain bur-lesque ap-prove pur-loin o-paque con-temn a-mour re-joice per-tain con-tempt bab-oon sub-join per-vail co-quette bas-soon dis-joint per-scribe e-nough be-hove pro-pose fi-nesse buf-foon ou pur-suit ga-zette ca-noe a-mount pro-rogue gro-tesque car-touch a-bout re-ceive har-angue dis-prove com-pound re-ceipt im-burse a-loof con-found re-course qua-drille 2 dis-count re-pair so-journ im-merge ac-count re-pose 3 im-merse pro-nouce [sic] re-prieeve a-dorn af-firm pro-pound re-straint a-broad de[-]sert sur[-]mount re-sume be-cause de-serve al-low re-tail de-fraud a[-]bound ----- p. 65 T A B L E XVII. Words of Three Syllables; the full Accent on the First, and the half Accent on the Third. Note. In half accepted terminations, ate, ude, ure, ize, ute, fe, ule, uge, ide, the vowel has its first sound generally, though not d[we]lt upon so long, or pronounced with so much force, as in the full accented syllables. But in the terminations ice, ive, ile, the vowels has generally its second sound, and the final e is superfluous, or only softens e; as notice, relative, juvenile, pronounced (notis, relativ, juvenil. In the former case the final e is in Roman; and in the latter case in Italic. 1 pa-gan-ism ag-o-nize di-a-phragm pleu-ri-sy al-ge-bra du-pli-cate qui-e-tude am-o-rous e-go-tism ru-mi-nate an-ti-quate fa-vo[-]rite scru-pu-lous ap-ti-tude sen-ci-ble se-ri-ous an-o-dyne fre-quen-cy su-i-cide bev-e-rage fu-gi-tive suit-a-ble blun-der-buss sea-si[-]ble va-ri-ous cat-a-logue glo-ri-ous u-ni-form cal-cu-late he-ro-ism u-su-ry can-di-date ju-bi-lee 2 can-dle-stick ju-ve-nile ad-jec-tive car[-]a-way live-li-hood ag-gra-vate cel-e[-]brate lu-bri-cate an-a-pæst crit-i-cism lu-cra-tive an-i-mate court-e-sy lu-di-crous ap-pe-tite cul-ti-vate lu-mi[-]nous al-ti-tude dec-a-logue night-in-gale ab-di-cate dec-o-rate nu-me-rous ac-cu-rate ded-i-cate o-di-ous ad-e-quate def-i-nite pre-vi-ous ac-tu-ate del-e-gate //F 2// ----- [page image] p. 66 der-o-gate in-sti-gate pres-by-ter des-o-late in-sti[-]tute pres-i-dent des-po-tism in-ti-mate pris-on-er des-pe-rate jeal-ous-y priv-i-lege des-ti-tute jeop-ar-dy quer-u-lous dem-a-gogue jes-sa-mine par[-]a-mour ep-au-lette las-si-tude rail-le-ay ep-i-logue lat-i-tude ran-co-ous el-o-quence lib[-]er-tine rap-tur-ous el-e-vate lit-i-gate rav-en-ous em-pha-sis mack-er-el rec-i-tude em-u-lous mag-ni[-]tude rel-a-tive en-ter-prise man-u[-]script ren-o-vate en-vi[-]ous mas-se-cre rep-ro-bate ep-i-cure med-i-cine res-i-dence es-ti[-]mate med-i-tate res-i-due ex-cel-lence mis-chiev-ous ret-i-nue fas-ci[-]nate met-a-phor rev-e-nue fab-u-lous musk-mel-lon rev-er-ence feb-ri-fuge nou[-]ish-ment rev-er-end fluc-tu-ate ped-a-gogue rhap-so-dy fur-be-low pal-li-ate rhet-o-ric gen-e-rous pal-pa[-]ble rid-i[-]cule gen-tle-man pal-pi-tate sac-ri-fice gen-u-ine par-a[-]ble sac-ri[-]lege grad-u-ate par-a-dise sal-i-vate gran-a-ry par-a-digm sas-sa-fras hem-is-phere par-a-phrase sat-ir-ize hes[-]i[-]tate par-a-site scav-en-ger hand[-]ker-chief pa-rent-age scim-i-tar hur-ri-cane par-ox[-]ism sen-si-ble hyp-o[-]crite par-ri-cide sep-a-rate im-age-ry pen-te-cost ser-a-phim im-pi-ous phys-i-cal stadt-hold-er in-fam-ous plen-i-tude stim-u-late ----- [p. 67] stip-u-late ar-ma-ment om-in-ous stren-u-ous ar-ti-fice op-e-rate sub-ju-gate bay-o-net op-po-site sub-se-quent bar-ba-rism or-i-fice sub-sti-tute bar-ba-rous prob[-]a-ble syn-a-gogue car-di-nal pop-u-lous sim-i-le car-pen-ter pos-i-tive scep-ti-cism chan-cel-lor pot-en-tate syn-co-pe chan-ce-ry prof[-]li-gate sur-ro-gate guar-di-an proph-e-cy syc-o-phant ghast-li-ness pros-e-cute syl-lo-gism lar-ce-ny por-rin-ger tan-ta-lize mar-gin-al pros-per-ous tan-ta-mount mas-quer-ade pros-ti-tute tel-e-scope par-ti-san sol-e-cism ten-a-ble phar-ma-cy sol-i-tude tim-or-ous par-lia-ment soph-is-try treach-e-rous rasp-ber-ry vol-a-tile trip-li-cate 5 roq-ue-laur tur-pi-tude al-der-man 2 vas-sal-age al-ma-nac per-qui-site vin-di-cate bot-a-ny per-se-cute bil-let-doux col-lo-quy per-son-age 3 com-pli-ment ser-vi-tude cor[-]di-al com-plai-sance ter-mi-nate cor-po-ral con-sti-tute firm[-]a-ment for-ti-tude cor-o-ner mir-a-cle for-ti-tude crock-e-ry 9 for-tu-nate lon-gi-tude cir-cu-lar fraud-u-lent nom-i-nate cir-cum-stance laud-a-ble ob[-]li-gate cir-cum-spect plau-si-ble ob-lo-quy com-pa-ny por-phy-ry ob-sta-cle come-li-ness 4 ob-sti-nate gov-ern[-]or ar[-]gu-ment ob-vi-ous gov-ern-ess ----- [page image] p. 68 oi ou coun-te-nance poign-an-cy coun-sel-lor roy-al-ty coun-ter-feit ============================================================ TABLE XVIII. LESSON I. MY son, hear the counsel of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother. If sinners entice thee to sin, consent thou not. Walk not in the way with them; refrain thy feet from their path: For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood. II. Be not wise in thine own eyes: but be humble. Let truth only proceed from thy mouth. Despise not the poor, because he is poor, but honor him, who is honest and just. Envy not the rich, but be content with thy fortune. Follow peace with all men, and let wisdom direct thy steps. III. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom. She is of more value than rubies. Length of days is in her right hand, and in her left hand riches and honor. Her ways are pleasant, and all her paths are peace. Exalt her, and she shall promote thee: She shall bring thee to honor when thou dost embrace her. IV. The ways of virtue are pleasant, and lead to life; but they who hate wisdom love death. ----- p. 69 Therefore pursue the paths of virtue and peace, then safety and glory will be thy reward. All my delight is upon the saints that are in the earth, and upon such as excel in virtue. ============================================================ T A B L E XIX[.] Words of Three Syllables, accented on the Second. 1 ad[-]ven-ture ex-cheq-uer a-chieve-ment ap-pren[-]tice es[-]cut-cheon ac-quaint-ance au-tum-nal ho-san-na ap-prais[-]er bis-sex-tile il-lu-strate ar-rear-age com-pen-sate i-am-bus al-le-gro com[-]pul-sive in-cen-tive ad-do-men con-sis[-]cate in-cul-cate blas-phe-mer cur-mud-geon in-den-ture con[-]ta-gion con-jec-ture in-jus-tice con-ta-gious con-tem-plate in-vec-tive cor-ro-sive con-vul-sive lieu-ten-ant cour-age-ous de-ben-ture mo-ment-ous de-ceit-ful de[-]fec-tive of-fen[-]siv-e de-ci-sive dis-cou-rage op[-]pres-sive dif-fu-sive dis-par-age mis-pris-ion e-gre-gious dis-sem-ble nheu-mat-ics en-light-en ef-ful[-]gent pre-sump-tive o-bei-sance en-tan-gle pro-duc-tive out-rage-ous ex-cul-pate pro-gres-sive pro-ce-dure ef-fect-ive re-pul-sive po-ta-toe em-bez-zle re-ten-tive so-no-rous en-deav-or re-venge-ful mus-que-toe ex-ces-sive rheu-mat-ic 2 ex-pen-sive stu[-]pen-dous a-bridge[-]ment ex-pres-[-]sive sub-mis-sive ac-knowl[-]edge ex-ten-sive ----- [page image] p. 70 3 a-part-ment 2 a-bor-tive dis-as-ter al-ter-nate en-dorse-ment em-bar-go de-ter-mine im-por-tance 5 e-ner-vate im-mor-tal a-pos-tle re[-]hears-al per-form-ance de-mon-strate sub-ver-sive re-cord-er sub-al[-]tern ha-ber-geon mis-for-tune 6 6 4 ac-cou-ter ex-tir-pate ad-van-tage ma-nœu-ver The following are accented on the First and Third Syllables. 1 2 Ap-per-tain con-nois-seur ac-qui-esce ad-ver[-]tise en-ter-tain male-con-tent con-tra[-]vene gaz-et-teer 4 can-on-a[d]e deb-o-nair coun[-]ter-mand ============================================================ T A B L E XX. Words not exceeding Three Syllables, divided. LESSON I. THE Wick-ed flee when no man pur-su-eth; but the right-e-ous are as bold as a li-on. Vir-tue ex-alt-eth a na-tion; but sin is a re-proach to a-ny peo-ple. The law of the wise is a foun-tain of life to de-part from the snares of death. Wealth got-ten by de-ceit, is soon wast-ed but he that gath-er-eth by la-bour shall in-crease in rich-es. II. I-dle-ness will bring thee to pov-er-ty: but ----- p. 71 by in-dus-try and pru-dence, thou shalt be fil-led with bread. Wealth mak-eth ma-ny friends; but the poor are for-got-ten by their neigh-bors. A pru-dent man fore-seeth [sic] the e-vil and hid-eth him-self; but the thought-less pass on and are pun-ish-ed. III. Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not de-part from it. Where there is no wood, the fire go-eth out, and where there is no tat-ler the strife ceas-eth. A word fit-ly spok-en is like ap-ples of gold in pic-tures of sil-ver. He that cov-er-eth his sins shall not pros-per; but he that con-fess-eth and for-sak-eth them shall find mer-cy. IV. The rod and re-proof give wis-dom; but a child left to him-self bring-eth his pa-rents to shame. Cor-rect thy son and he will give thee rest; yea, he will give thee de-light to thy soul. A man's pride shall bring him low; but hon-or shall up-hold the hum-ble in spi-rit. The eye that mock-eth at his fa-ther, and scorn-eth to o-bey his moth-er, the ra-vens of the val-ley shall pick it out, and the young ea-gle shall eat it. ----- [page image] p. 72 V. By the bless-ing of the up right, the ci-ty is ex-alt-ed, but is o-ver-thrown by the mouth of the wick-ed. Where no coun-cil is the peo-ple fall; but in the mul-ti-tude of coun-sel-lors there is safe-ty. The wis-dom of the pru-dent is to un-der-stand his way, but the fol-ly of fools is de-ceit. A wise man fear-eth and de-part[-]eth from evil; but the fool rag-eth and is con-fi-dent. Be not hast-y in thy spir-it to be an-gry; for an[-]ger rest-eth in the bo-som of fools. ============================================================ TABLE XXI. Words of Four Syllables; the full Accent on the First, and the half Accent on the Fourth. 2 pal-li-a-tive 3 am-i-ca-ble pit-i-a-ble for-mi-da[-]ble ap-plica[-]ble rev-o[-]ca[-]ble hos-pit-a-ble cred-it-a-ble spec-u-la-tive 4 des-pi-ca-ble suf-fer-a-ble an-swer-a-ble el-i-gi-ble tem-per-a-ture 5 es-tim-a-ble val-u-a-ble com-mon-al-ty [sic] ex-pli-ca-tive ven-er-a-ble nom-i-na-tive fig-u-ra-tive vul-ner-a-ble op[-]e-ra-tive lit-e-ra-ture 1 prof-it[-]a-ble ma-riage-a-ble a-mi-a-ble tol-er-a-ble mis-er-a-ble ju-di-ca-ture 9 nav-i-ga-ble va-ri-a-ble cop-u-la-tive The following have the half Accent on the Third Syllable. 2 an-ti-qua-ry ta-ber-na-cle Ag-ri-cul-ture ap-o-plex-y tran-si-to-ry ----- p. 73 3 4 4 au-di-to-ry ar-bi-tra-ry par-si-mo-ny ============================================================ TABLE XXII. Words of Four Syllables; the full Accent on the Second, and the half Accent on the Fourth. 1 pre-ca-ri-ous com-mis-e-rate ad-mi-ra-ble sa-lu-bri-ous com-par[-]a-tive ac-cu-mu-late spon-ta-ne-ous com-pat-a-ble ap-pro-pri-ate ter-ra[-]que-ous com-pend-i-ous an-ni-hi-late vi-ca-ri-ous con[-]grat-u[-]late a-me-na[-]ble vic-to-ri-ous con-spic-u-ous ab-bre-vi-ate vo-lu-min-ous con-tem-pla-tive al-le-vi-ate ux-o-ri[-]ous con-tempt-i-ble cen-so-rious 3 con-tig-u-ous com-mo-di[-]ous as-par-a-gus de-fin-i[-]tive com-mu-ni-cate ac-cel-e-rate de[-]lib-e-rate con-cu-pis-cence ad[-]mis-si-ble de[-]riv-a-tive com-par-a-ble ad-ven-tu-rous di-min-u-tive de-plor-a-ble a-dul-te-rate e-phem-e-ris dis-pu-ta-ble ac-cept-a-ble e-piph-a[-]ny er-ro-ne-ous am-big-u-ous fa-cil-i-tate har-mo-ni-ous am-phib-i-ous fa-nat-i-cism im-me-di[-]ate a-nal-y-sis il-lu-stri-ous im-pe-ri-ous ar-tic-u-late im-pet-u-ous im-pla-ca-ble as-sas-in-ate in-dus-tri-ous in-tu-i-tive be-at-i-tude in-gen-u-ous la-bori-ous ca-lum-ni-ate in-quis-i-tive me-lo-di-ous ca-pit-u-late in-vid-i-ous mys-te-ri-ous cer-tif-i-cate in-vin-ci-ble no-to[-]ri-ous ca-tas[-]tro-phe in-vis-i-ble ob-se-qui-ous co-ag-u-late la-ment-a-ble op-pro-bri-ous com-bus-ti-ble per-fid-i-ous pe-nu-ri-ous com-mem-o-rate per-spic-u-ous //G// ----- [page image] p. 74 pre-di-ca[-]ment de-bauch-e-ry pre-pos-te-rous pre-fer-a-ble de-for-mi-ty pre-rog-a-tive pro-mis-cu-ous e-nor-mi-ty re-spons-i-ble pa-rish-ion-er sub-or-di-nate 2 re-cept-a-cle 5 af-firm-a-tive re-di-cu-lous [sic] a-bom-i-nate con-vers-a-ble si-mil[-]i-tude ac-com-o-date re-vers-i-ble sus-cep-ti-ble a-non-y-mous su-per-flu-ous tem-est-u-ous a-poc-a-lypse su-per-la-tive tu-mult-u-ous a-poc-ry-pha pre-serv-a-tive vi-cis-si-tude a-pos-tro-phe 9 vo-ci-fe-rous cor-rob-o-rate ac-com-pa-ny vo-lup-tu-ous de-nom-i-nate dis-cov-e-ry u-nan-i[-]mous de-mon-stra-ble oi 3 de-pop-u-late em-broid-e-ry con-form-i-ty dis-con-so-late ============================================================ TABLE XXIII. Words of Five Syllables; the full Accent on the Second, and the half accent on the Fourth. 2 pre-par-a-to-ry Co-tem-po-ra-ry pro-hib-it-o-ry de-clam-a-to-ry res-id-u-a-ry de-fam-a-to-ry tu-mult-u-a-ry dis-pen-sa-to-ry vo-cab-u-la-ry e-lec-tu-a-ry vo-lupt-u-a-ry e-pis-to-la-ry 5 ex-clam-a-to-ry con-sol-a-to-ry ex-plan-a-to-ry de-pos-it-o-ry ex-tem-po-ra-ry de-rog-a-to-ry he-red-i-ta-ry in-vol-un-ta-ry in-cen-di-a-ry re-pos-it-o-ry in-flam[-]a-to-ry 2 pre-lim-i-na-ry ob-serv-a-to-ry ----- p. 75 The following have the half Accent on the Fifth Syllable. 1 de-gen-e-ra-cy Com-mu-ni-ca-ble de-lib-er-a-tive com-mu-ni-ca-tive ef-fem-i-na-cy 2 in-suf-fer-a-ble con-fed-e-ra-cy in-dis-so-lu-ble con-sid-er-a[-]ble in-vul-ne-ra-ble ============================================================ T A B L E XXIV. Words of Five Syllables, accented on the First and Third. 1 com[-]pre-hen-si-ble am-bi-gu-i-ty con-san-guin-i-ty con-ti-gu-i-ty con-tra-dic-to-ry con-tra-ri-e-ty cred-i-bil[-]i-ty dic-ta-to-ri-al di-a[-]met-ric-al ep-i-cu-re-an el-e-ment-a-ry im-por-tu-ni-ty ep-i-dem-ic-al no-to-ri-e-ty e-van-gel-ic-al op-por-tu-ni-ty fal-i-bil-i-ty per-pe-tu-i-ty gen-e-al-o-gy per-spi-cu-i-ty hos-pi-tal-i-ty pres-by-te-ri-an il[-]le-git-i-mate pri-mo-ge-ni-al im-per-cep-ti-ble su-per-flu-i-ty in-tel-lec-tu-al tes-ti-mo-ni-al in-tro-duc-to-ry 2 in-tre[-]pid[-]i-ty ac-a[-]dem-ic-al ir-re-sis-ti-ble af-fa-bil[-]i-ty mag-na-nim-i-ty al-pha-bet-i-cal met-a-phys-ic-al an-a-lyt-ic-al mon-o-syl-la-ble ar-gu-men-ta-tive plau-si-bil-i-ty cir-cum-am-bi-ent pol-y-syl-la-ble ----- [page image] p. 76 pop-u-la-ri-ty an[-]i-mos-i-ty pos-si-bi-li[-]ty a-pos-tol-ic-al pri-mo-gen-i-ture ar-is[-]toc-ra-cy prin-ci[-]pal-i-ty as-tro-nom-ic-al prob-a-bil-i-ty cat-e-gor-ic-al prod-i-gal-i-ty cu-ri-os-i-ty punc-tu-al[-]i-ty di-a-bol-ic-al pu-sil-lan-i-mous et-y-mol-o-gy re-gu-lar-i-ty gen[-]e[-]ros-i-ty rep-re-hen-si-ble in[-]ter-rog-a-tive rep[-]re-sent-a-tive met-a-phor-ic-al sat-is[-]fac-to-ry pe-ri-od-ic-al sen[-]si-bil-i-ty phi-lo-soph-ic-al sen-su-al-i[-]ty phys-i-ol-o-gy sim-i-lar-i-ty phys-i[-]og-no-my sin-gu-lar-i-ty trig-o-nom-e-try tes[-]ta-ment-a-ry u-ni-for-mi-ty 2 2 an-a-tom-i[-]cal u-ni-ver-si-ty ============================================================ TABLE XXV. Words not divided. LESSON I. BE not anxious for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor for your body, what ye shall put on; for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of these things. Behold the fowls of the air: For they sow not neither do they reap nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin; and yet Solomon in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these. ----- p. 77 II. Therefore be not anxious for the good things of this life, but seek the kingdom of heaven and its righteousness, and all things shall be added to you. Ask, and it shall be given unto you: Seek and ye shall find: Knock, and it shall be opened. Love your enemies; bless them that curse you; do good unto them that hate you, and pray for them that scornfully use you and persecute you. III. When thou prayest, be not as the hypocrites, who love to pray standing in the synagogues, and in the streets, that they may be seen of men: But when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father who is in secret, and thy Father who seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. IV. Lay not up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal; but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through and steal: For, where your treasure is there will be your heart also. Our Saviour's Golden Rule. All things which ye would have men do to you, do ye the same to them, for this is the law and the prophets. ============================================================ TABLE XXVI. In the following words tion, than, tial, and tier, are pronounced chun, chan, chal, chur. 1 2 chris-tian cour-tier bas-tion bes-tial ----- [page image] p. 7[8] fus-tian com-bus-tion mix-tion di-ges-tion 2 ad-mix-tion ce-les-tial And in all words where t is preceded by s or z. In all other words tion is pronounced shun; as are also cion, cyon, sion. Thus motion, coercion, halcyon, mansion, are pronounced moshun, coershun, halshun, manshun. Cial is pronounced shal. Words of Two Syllables, accented on the First. 1 2 man-sion ten-tion Mo-tion ac-tion men-tion unc-tion na-tion dic-tion mis-sion 3 no-tion fac-tion pas-sion auc-tion por-tion fic-tion pen-sion 5 po-tion frac-tion sanc-tion op-tion ra-tion fric-tion sec-tion 2 sta-tion func-tion ses-sion ver-sion Words of Three Syllables, accented on the Second. 1 pro-fes-sion ces-sa-tion col-lec-tion pro-tec-tion com-mo-tion com-mis-sion pre-emp-tion de-vo-tion com-pres-sion re-demp-tion plan-ta-tion con-fes-sion re-flec-tion pol[-]lu-tion con-sump-tion sub-jec-tion pro-por-tion con-ven[-]tion suc-ces-sion re-la-tion con-vic-tion sus-pen-sion sal-va-tion cor-rec-tion 3 fi-du-cial de-cep-tion as-per-sion 2 de-scrip-tion as-ser-tion ad-mis[-]sion di-rec-tion a-ver-sion af-fec-tion dis-tinc-tion con-ver-sion af-flic-tion ex-cep-tion de-ser-tion as-cen-sion ex-pres-sion dis-per-sion as-sump-tion in-flic-tion re-ver-sion at-ten-tion ob-jec-tion sub-ver-sion ----- p. 79 Words of Four Syllables; the full Accent on the Third, and the half Accent on the First. 1 per-se-cu-tion ac-cep-a-tion pres-er-va-tion ac-cu-sa-tion proc-la-ma-tion ad-mi-ra-tion pub-li-ca-tion ad-o-ra[-]tion ref-or-ma-tion ag-gra-va-tion res-er-va-tion ap-pro-ba-tion res-o[-]lu-tion av-o-ca-tion rev-e-la-tion cal-cu-la-tion rev-o-lu-tion con-dem-na-tion sep-a-ra[-]tion con-gre-ga-tion sup[-]pli-ca[-]tion con-sti-tu-tion trib-u-la-tion con[-]tem[-]pla-tion vi-o-la-tion cul-ti-va-tion vis-i-ta-tion dec-la-ra-tion 2 des-o-lu[-]tion ap-pre-hen-sion el-o-cu-tion con-de-scen-sion em-u-la-tion con-tra-dic-tion ex-pect-a-tion ju-ris-dic-tion hab-it[-]a-tion res-ur-rec-tion in-cli-na-tion sat-is-fac-tion in-stii-tu-tion 3 med[-]i-ta[-]tion aug-men-ta-tion mod-e-ra-tion 5 nav-i-ga-tion al-ter-a-tion ob-ser-va-tion ============================================================ Words of Five Syllables, accented on the First and Fourth. 2 1 ed[-]i-fi-ca-tion am-pli[-]fi-ca-tion as-so-ci-a-tion qual-i-fi-ca-tion mul-ti-pli-ca-tion ----- [page image] p. 80 con-tin-u-a-tion con-so-ci-a-tion rat-i-fi-ca-tion or-gan-i-za-tion sanc-ti-fi-ca-tion 2 sig-ni-fi-ca-tion co-op-e-ra-tion 9 glo-ri-fi-ca-tion cir-cum-lo-cu-tion re-tal-i-a-tion con-fed-e-ra[-]tion 4 con-grat-u-la-tion ar-gu-men-ta-tion * Pronounced pro-pis-i-a-shun. Note. As[-]sas-si-na-tion, de-nom-i-na-tion, de-ter-mi-na-tion, il-lu-mi-na-tion, have the second and fourth Syllables accented and tran-sub-stan-ti-a-tion has an accent on the first, third, and fifth syllables. Con[-]sub-stan-ti-a-tion follows the same rule. ============================================================ a boy in a tree FABLE I. Of the BOY that stole Apples. AN old man found a rude boy upon one of his trees stealing apples, and desired him to come down; but the young saucebox told him plainly he would not[.] Won't you, said the ----- p. 81 old man, then I will fetch you down; so he pulled up some tufts of grass and threw at him; but this only made the youngest laugh, to think he should pretend to beat him out of the tree with grass only. Well, well, said the old man, if neither grass nor words will do, I must try what virtue there is in stones: so the old man pelted him heartily with stones: which soon made the young chap hasten down from the tree and beg the old man's pardon. M O R A L If good words and gentle means will not reclaim the wicked, they must be dealt with in a more severe manner. ============================================================ T A B L E XXVII. In all words ending in ow unaccented, w is silent, and o has its first sound. Many of these words are corrupted in vulgar pronunciation; follow is called foller, &c. for which reason the words of this class are collected in the following table. 2 Bar-row bel-lows hal-low win-no-w bel-low har-row shad-ow yel-low bil-low cal-low shal-low 5 el-bow mal-lows spar-row bor-row fel-ow mar-row tal-low fol-low fal-low mead-ow whit-low mor-row far-row mel-low wid-ow sor-row fur-row min-now wil-low wal-low gal-lows nar-row win-dow swal-low ============================================================ T A B L E XXVIII. In the following words t sounds like zh. Thus con-fu-si-on is pronounced con-fu-zhun; bra-si-er, bra[-]zhur; oz-zi-er, ozhur; vi-sion, vizh[-]un; plea[-]sure, pleazh-ure. Note In this and the following table, the figures shew the accented syllables, without any other direction. 1 osier fusion brasier rasure 1 crosier hosier am-brosial gla-zier sei-zure ad-he-sion ----- [page image] p. 82 al-lu-sion em-bra-sure 2 co-he-sion en-clo-sure ab-scis-ion col-lu-sion e-ra-sion col-lis-ion con-clu-sion il-lu-sion con[-]cis[-]ion con-fu-sion in-tru-sion ci-vis-ion con[-]tu-sion in-fu-sion de-cis-ion de-lu-sion pro[-]fu-sion de-ris-ion dif-fu-sion oc-ca-sion e-lis-ion ef-fu-sion ob-tru-sion e-lys-ian ex-clu-sion 2 pre-cis-on ex-plo-sion vis-ion pro-vis-ion e-va-sion meas-ure al-lis-on a-bra-sion pleas-ure re-cis-on cor-ro-sion reas-ure 9 2 de-tru-sion leis-ure cir-cum-cis-ion dis-po-sion az-ure The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule. ============================================================ a woman alarmed over spilt milk FABLE II. The COUNTRY MAID and her MILK-PAIL. WHEN men suffer their imaginations to amuse them with the prospect of distant and uncertain improvement of their condition, they frequently suffer real losses by their inattention to those affairs in which they are immediately concerned. ----- p. 83 A country maid was walking very deliberately with a pail of milk upon her head, when she fell into the following train of reflections; The money for which I shall sell this milk, will enable me to increase my flock of eggs to three hundred. These eggs, allowing for what may prove addle, and what may be destroyed by vermin will produce at least two hundred and fifty chickens. The chickens will be fit to carry to market about Christmas, when poultry always bears a good price; so that by May-day I cannot fail of having money enough to purchase a new gown. Green-- let me consider--yes, green become my complexion best, and green it shall be. In this dress I will go to the fair, where all the young fellows will strive to have me for a partner; but I shall perhaps refuse every one of them, and with an air of disdain toss from them. Transported with this triumphant thought, she could not forbear acting with her head what passed in her imagination, when down came the pail of milk, and with it all her imaginary happiness. ============================================================ T A B L E XXIX. Words in which cie, fie, and tie, are pronounced she; zia, and cia. sha; cious and tious. shus. Thus, ancient. partial, captious, are pronounced anshant, parshal, capshus. This rule will be sufficient to direct the learner to a right pronunciation without distinguishing the silent letters. 1 fic-tious au-da-cious gre-cian nup-tial ca-pa-cious gra-cious tran-sient con-so[-]ciate pa-tient lus-cious dis-so-ciate quo-tient 3 e-ma-ciate spa-cious cau-tious ex-cru-ciate spe-cious 4 ex-pa-tiate spe-cies* par-tial fa-ce-tious so-cial 5 fal[-]la-cious sa-tiate con-science fe-ro-cious 2 con-scious in-gra[-]tiate an-cient 1 lo-qua-cious cap-tious ap-pre-ciate ne-go-ciate fac-tions as-so-ciate pro-ca-tious * Pronounced speshiz. ----- [page image] p. 84 ra-pa-cious com-ni-cience 2 se-ga-cious po-ten-tial cir-cum-stan-tial se-qua-cious pro-vin-cial con-sci-en-tious te-na-cious pru-den-tial con-se-quen-tial vex-a-tious sen-ten-tious con-fi-den-tial vi-va-cious sub-stan-tial pen-i-ten-tial vo-ra-cious 2 pes-ti-len-tial 2 com-mer-cial prov-i-den-tial an-nun-ciate 1 rev-e-ren-tial con-ten-tious ef-fi-ca-cious res-i-den-tia-ry cre-den-tial os-ten-ta-tious 5 e-nun-ciate per-ti-na-cious e-qui-noc-tial es-sen-tial per-spi-ca-cious 1 2 in-fec-ti-ous con-tu-ma-cious* plen-i-po-ten-tia-ry li-cen-ciate The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule. * The words of four syllables have the half accent on the first. fox and flies FABLE III. The FOX and the SWALLOW. ARISTOTLE informs us that the following fable was spoken by Æsop to the Samians, on a debate upon changing their minister, who were accused of plundering the commonwealth. A fox, swimming across a river, happened to be entangled ----- p. 85 in some weeds that grew near the bank, from which he was unable to extricate himself. As he lay thus exposed to whole swarms of flies who were galling him, and sucking his blood, a swallow observing his distress, kindly offered to drive them away. By no means, said the Fox, for if these should be chased away, who are already sufficiently gorged, another more hungry swarm would succeed, and I should be robbed of every remaining drop of blood in my veins. ============================================================ T A B L E XXX. In the following words, the vowels are all short, and the accented syllable must be pronounced as though it ended with the consonant sh. Thus, pre-cious, spe-cial, effi[-]cient, logi-cian, mali-tia [sic], ed-di-ti-on, are pronounced presh-us, spesh-al, effish[-]unt, logish-un, malish-a, addish-un. 2 ef-fi-cient pe-ti-tion pre-cious es-pe-cial pro-fi-cient spe-cial fla-gi-tious phy-si-cian vi-tious fru-i-tion po-si-tion vi-tiate ju[-]di-cial pro-pi-tious 2 lo-gi-cian se-di-tion ad-di-tion ma-gi-cian se-di-tious am-bi[-]tion ma-li-cious sol-sti-tial aus-pi-cious mi[-]li[-]tia suf-fi-cient ca-pri-cious mu-si-cian sus-pi-cious co-mi-tial nu-tri-tion trans-i-tion con-di-tion no-vi[-]coate po-li-tion cog[-]ni-tion of-fi-ciate 2 con-tri-tion of-fi-cial ab-o-li-tion* de-fi-cient of-fi-cious ac-qui-si-tion de-li-cious pa-tri-tion ad-mo[-]ni-tion dis[-]cre-tion par-ti[-]tion ad[-]ven-ti-tious dis[-]cu-tient per-di[-]tion am-mu[-]ni[-]tion e-di-tion per-ni[-]cious ap-pa-ri-tion * The words of four syllables have a half accent on the first, except practitioner. Arithmetition, academician, and supposition, have the half accent on the second, and mathematitian on the first. //H// ----- [page image] p. 86 ar-ti-fi-cial e-bu-li-tion su-per-fi-cial ad-sci-ti-tious er-u-di-tion su[-]per[-]sti-tion ap-po-si-tion ex-hi-bi-tion sup-po-si[-]tion a-va-ri-cious ex-po-si-tion sur-rep-ti-tious ben-e-fi-cial im-po-si-tion 2 co-a-li-tion op-po-si-tion prac-ti-tion-er com-pe-ti-tion prej-u-di[-]cial 3 com-po[-]si-tion pol-i-ti-tion a-rith-me-ti-cian def-i-ni-tion prop-o-si-tion sup-pos-i-tion dep-o-si-tion pro-hi-bi-tion math-e-ma-ti-cian dis-po-si-ion rhet[-]o-ri-cian The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule. In the following words the consonant q terminates the syllable; but perhaps the ease of the learner may render a different division more eligible. 2 e-qui-ty li-quor la[-]quey in-i-qui-ty e-quit-a-ble li-que-fy 2 in-i-qui-tous li-quid li-qui-date an-ti-qui-ty ob-li-qui-ty ============================================================ cat and rat FABLE IV.--The CAT and the RAT. A CERTAIN Cat had made such unmerciful havock among the vermin of her neighbourhood, that not a single rat, or ----- p. 87 mouse dared venture to appear abroad. Puss was soon convinced that if affairs remained in their present situation, she must be totally unsupplied with provision. After mature deliberation, therefore, she resolved to have recourse to stratagem. For this purpose she suspended herself from a hook with her head downwards, pretending to be dead. The rats and mice observing her as they peeped from their holes, in this dangling attitude, concluded she was hanging for some misdemeanor; and with great joy immediately sallied forth in quest of their prey. Puss as soon as a sufficient number were collected togther, quitting her hold, dropped into the midst of them; and very few had the fortune to make good their retreat. This artifice having succeeded so well, she was encouraged to try the event of a second. Accordingly she whitened her coat all over, by rolling herself in a heap of flour, and in this disguise lay concealed in the bottom of the meal-tub. This stratagem was executed in general with the same effect as the former. But an old experienced Rat, altogether as cunning as his adversary, was not so easily ensnared. I don't much like, said he, that white heap yonder; something whispers me there is mischief concealed under it. It is true it may be meal; but it may likewise be something that I shall not relish quite so well. There can be no harm, at least, in keeping at a proper distance; for caution, I am sure, is the parent of security. ============================================================ T A B L E XXXI. In the following table, i before a vowel, sounds like y at the beginning of words, as in junior, filial, dominion, which are pronounced, junyur, filyul, dominyun. 1 ax-iom pill-ion fo-lio bdell[-]ium pin-ion ju-nior bil-ious stall-ion sol-dier* bill-iards trill-ion sa-viour bill-ions trunn-ion se-nior brill-iant val-iant seign-ior bag[-]nio cull-ion u-nion fil-ial ruff-ian a-lien flex[-]ion runn-ion ge-nial flux-ion scull-ion ge-nius mill-ion bull-ion anx-ious† min-ion * Pronounced sol-ger. † Pronounced ank-shus. ----- [page image] p. 88 5 2 punc-til-io coll-ier bat-tal-ion ras-cal-ion pon[-]iard ci-vil-ian re-bell-ion 9 com-pan-ion se[-]rag-lio on-i-on com-plex-ion ver-mil-ion 1 con-nex-ion aux-il-ia-ry be-hav-iour ce-flux-ion con-cil-ia-ry com-mun-ion do-min-ion 2 par-hel-ion fa-mil[-]iar min-i-a-ture pe-cul-iar o-pin[-]ion 2 con-ven-ient pa[-]vil-lion pe-cun-ia-ry in-gen-ious post-ill-ion ============================================================ fox and bramble bush FABLE V.--The FOX and the BRAMBLE. A FOX, closely pursued by a pack of Dogs, took shelter under the covert of a Bramble. He rejoiced in this asylum; and for a while, was very happy; but soon found that if he attempted to stir, he was wounded by thorns and prickles on every side.-- However, making a virtue of necessity, he forbore to complain, and comforted himself with reflecting, that no bliss is perfect; that good and evil are mixed, and flow from the same fountain. These Briars, indeed, said he, will tear my skin a little, yet they keep off the Dogs. For the sake of the good, then, let me bear the evil with patience: each bitter has its sweet; and these Brambles, though they wound my flesh, preserve my life from danger. ----- p. 89 TABLE XXXII. The first sound of th, as in think. 2 the-o-rem 1 e-ther the-a-tre en-thu-si-asm ja-cinth hy-a-cinth 3 the-sis 2 an[-]tip-a-thy ze-nith cath-o[-]lic pa-ren-the-sis 2 ep-i-thet a-rith-me[-]tic thun[-]der lab-y-rinth an[-]tith-e-sis meth-od leth-ar-gy mis-an-thro-phy an-them pleth-o-ry phi-lan-thro-phy diph[-]thong sym-pa-thy can-thar-i-des eth-ics am[-]a-ranth 5 pan-ther am-e-thyst the-oc-ra-cy sab-bath ap-a-thy the-ol-o-gy thim-ble can-the-rus the[-]od-o-lite this-tle syn[-]the-sis ther-mom-e-ter thurs-day 1 au[-]thor-i[-]ty triph-thong pan-the-on ca-thol-i-can 3 e-the-rial my-thol[-]o-gy en-thral can-the-ris or-thog-ra-phy ath-wart ca-the-dral hy-poth-e-sis be-troth sab-ba-oth li-thog[-]ra-phy 9 u-re-thra li-thot-o-my thir-ty ma-the-sis a-poth-e-ca-ry thor-ough 2 1 2 au-then-tic ap-oth-e[-]o-sis thir-teen pa-thet-ic pol-y-the-ism on a-can-thus 1 thou-sand ath-le-tic bib-li-o-the-cal 1 me-theg-lin 5 a-the-ism 4 ich-thy-ol-o-gy the-o-ry ca-thar-tic or-ni-thol-o-gy Second sound of th, as in thou. Ei-ther nei-ther hea-then cloth-ier //H 2// ----- [page image] p. 90 2 wheth-er far-thing 1 fath-om neith-er far[-]er be-neath feath-er weth-er 5 be-queath gath-er prith-ee poth[-]er 9 lath-er bur-then broth-el an-o-ther hith[-]er south-ern 9 2 leath-er teth-er broth-er to-ge-ther fer-ther thith-er wor-thy 5 breth-ren whith-er moth-er log-a-rithms weath-er 4 smoth-er 2 with-er fa-ther o-ther nev-er-the-less The derivatives follow the same rule. ------------------------------------------------------------ bear and man FABLE VI.--The BEAR and the TWO FRIENDS. TWO Friends, setting out together upon a journey which led through a dangerous forest, mutually promised to assist each other, if they should happen to be assaulted. They had not proceeded far, before they perceived a bear making towards them with great rage. There were no hopes in flight; but one of them being very active, sprung up into a tree; upon which the other, throwing himself flat on the ground, held his breath, and pretended to be dead; remembering to have heard it asserted, that this creature will not prey upon a dead carcase. The Bear came up, and after smelling him some time, left him, and went on. When he was quite out of sight and hearing, the hero from the tree calls ----- p. 9[1] out, Well, my friend, what said the Bear? he seemed to whisper you very closely. He did so, replied the other, and gave me this good piece of advice: never to associate with a wretch, who, in the hour of danger, will desert his friend. ============================================================ T A B L E XXXIII. Words in which ch have the sound of k. 1 2 5 Christ cho[-]rus chol-ic char-ac-ter chyle re-trarch chol[-]er cat-e-chism scheme cha-os schol-er pen-ta-teuch ache cho-ral mon-arch sep-ul-cher 2 e-poch or-chal tech-ni-cal chasm o-cher 2 al-chy-my chrism tro-chee schir-rous an-cho-ret tach 2 9 brach-i-al chord an-chor stom-ach lac[h]-ry-mal 5 chris-ten 1 mach-i-nate loch chym-ist pa-tri-arch sac-char[-]ine 6 ech-o eu-cha-rist syn-chro-nism school chal[-]ice 2 mich-ael-mas oi sched-ule an-ar-chy 5 choir pas-chal chrys-o-lite chor-is-ter ---------- chron-i-cle cha-lyb-e-ate the-om-a-chy or-ches[-]tra a-nach-ro-nism 4 2 och-i-my syn-ec-do-che ar-chi-tec-ture 1 pyr-rhich-i-us an-ti-bac[-]chus chi-me[-]ra am-phib-ra-chus 2 2 pa-ro-chi-al 2 cat-e-chet-ic-al pa-mel-ion mel-an-cho-ly 1 2 5 bac-cha-nal-ion tri-bach[-]us chro-nol-o-gy cat-e-chu-men arch-an-gel chi-rog-ra-phy 5 me-chan-ic cho-rog-ra-phy ich-thy-ol-o-gy ca-chex-y chro-nom-e-ter ----- [page image] p. 92 men chasing dogs FABLE VII.--The TWO DOGS. HASTY and inconsiderate connexions are generally attended with great disadvantages; and much of every man's good or ill fortune, depends upon the choice he makes of his friends. A good natured Spaniel overtook a surly Mastiff, as he was travelling on the high road. Tray, although an entire stranger to Tyger, very civilly accosted him; and if it would be no interruption, he said he should be glad to bear him company on his way. Tyger, who happened not to be altogether in so growling a mood as usual, accepted the proposal; and they very amicably pursued their journey together. In the midst of their conversation they arrived at the next village, where Tyger began to display his malignant disposition, by an unprovoked attack upon every dog he met. The villagers immediately sallied forth with great indignation, to rescue their respective favorites; and falling upon our two friends without distinction or mercy, poor Tray was most cruelly treated, for no other reason, than his being found in bad company. ============================================================ T A B L E XXIV. Words of French original, in which ch sounds like sh; and i accented like e long. 1 chan-chre fra-cheur Chaise 1 chi-cane 2 cham-ade 11 cham-ois* cham-pagn pique * Pronounced shammy. ----- p. 93 shire 2 bom-bard[-]ier 11 chev-er[-]ill buc-can-ier ma-chine chev-is-ance can-non-ier cha[-]grin chiv-al-ry cap-a-pie cash-ier 1 car-bin[-]ier ca-price deb-au-chee cav-a[-]lier an-tique 1 cor-de-lier fa-tigue chan-de-lier fi-nan-cier ma-rine cap-u-chin 5 11 ob-lique mag-z-zine quar-an-tine der-nier bom-a-sin char-le-tan po-lice man[-]da[-]rin 2 1 ma-chine-ry brig-a-dier chat-tel[-]la-ny In the words archives, franchise, ch have the English sound.-- The compounds of franchise, such as affranchise, disfranchisement, &c. follow the same rule. ------------------------------------------------------------ two men Fable III. The Partial Judge. A FARMER came to a neighbouring Lawyer, expressing great concern for an accident which, he said, had just happened. ----- [page image] p. 94 One of your oxen, continued he, has been gored by an unlucky bull of mine,[ ]and I should be glad to know how I am to make you reparation. Thou art a very honest fellow, replied the Lawyer, and wilt not think it unreasonable that I expect one of your oxen in return. It is no more than justice, quoth the Farmer, to be sure: but what did I say? I mistake--It is your bull that has killed one of my oxen. Indeed! says the Lawyer, that alters the case: I will enquire into the affair; and if--And if! said the Farmer-- the business I find would have been concluded without an if had you been as ready to do justice to others, as to extract it from them. ============================================================ T A B L E XXXV. Words in which g is hard before i, e, and y. 1 dag-ger reg-gish nog-gen gear crag-gy rug-ged 4 geese bug-gy scrag-ged par-get gyre crag-ged scrag-gy tar-get 2 dig-ger shag[-]gy 2 geld dreg-gy slug-gish gir-dle get drug-get snag-ged gher-kin gift drug-gist sprig-gy 2 give slag[-]gy stag-ger be-gin gig gib-ber swag-ger 2 gild gib-bous trig-ger wag-ge-ry gill gid-dy twig-gen 5 gimp gig-gle twig-gy log-ger-head gird* gig-let wag-gish 1 girt giz-zard 3 gy-ra-tion girl gim-blet au-gur 2 2 hag-gish 5 or-gi-ous ea-ger jag-gy bog-gy to-geth-er mea-ger jag-ged fog-gy gym-nas-tic gew-gaw knag-gy clog-gy 2 5 ti-ger leg-ged clog-ger pet-i-fog-ger to-ged pig-gin dog-ged 2 1 2 quag-gy dog-ger ter-giv-er-sa-tion big-gin rag-ged dog-gish *i has the sound of brag-ger rig-ger jog-ger second e. ----- p. 95 The following are pronounced as though they were written with double g. Thus finger is pronounced fingger. 2 lin-ger youn-gest strong-er fin-ger lin-go 5 strong-est an-ger lin-guist long-er 9 hun-ger youn-ger long-est mon-ger These, with their compounds and derivatives, are most of the words in the language in which g has its hard sound before e, i, and y. But to these must be added the derivatives of verbs ending in g. Thus from dig cometh diggeth, diggest, digged, digging, &c. in which g is hard before e and i. ============================================================ T A B L E XXXVI. The Boy that went to the Wood to look for Bird's Nests when he should have been at School. WHEN Jack got up, and put on his clothes, he thought if he could get to the wood, he should be quite well; for the poor fool thought more of a bird's nest than his book, that would make his wise and great. When he came there, he could find no nests but one that was on the top of a tree, and with much ado, he gets up to it, and robs it of the eggs. Then he tries to get down; but a branch of the tree found a hole in the skirt of his coat, and held him fast. At this time he would have been glad to have been at school; for the bird on a rage at the loss of her eggs, flew at him, and was like to pick out his eyes. Now it was that the sight of a man, at the foot of the tree, gave him more joy than all the nests in the wood. This man was so kind as to chase away the bird, and help him out of the tree; and from that time forth, he would not loiter from school; but grew a good boy and a wise young man, and had the praise and good will of all that knew him. ============================================================ T A B L E XXXVII. It is an unerring rule in the language, that c and g are hard at the end of words, and they commonly are so at the end of syllables, but in the following table they are soft, like s and j at the end of the accented syllable. Thus magic, acid, are pronounced majic, asid, and ought to be divided mag-ic, ac-id. It is a matter disputed by school-masters, which is the most eligible division--mag-ic, ac-id, or ma-gic, a-cid. However, as children acquire a habit of pronouncing c and g hard at the end of syllables, I choose not to break the practice, but have joined these consonants to the last syllable. The figures shew that the vowels of the accented syllables are all short. ----- [page image] p. 96 2 ma-cer-ate mu-ni-ci-pal ma-gic ma-cil-ent an-ti[-]ci-pate tra-gic ma-gis-trate par-ti-ci-pate a=gile tra-ge-dy sim-pli-ci-ty a-cid vi-cin-age me-di-ci-nal di-git ve-get-ate so-li-cit-ude vi-gil ve-get-ant per-ni-ci-ty fa-cile 5 tri-pli-ci-ty fra-gile lo-gic va-ti-cin[-]ate fri-gid pro-cess ver-ti-ci-ty ri-gid co-gi-tate e-da-ci-ty pla-cid pro-ge-ny ex-ag-ge-rate† pi-geon 2 mor-da-ci-ty si-gil il-li-cit nu-ga-ci-ty ta-cit im-pli-cit o-pa-ci[-]ty a-gi-tate e-li-cit ra-pa-ci-ty ag-ger-ate* ex-pli-cit sa-ga-ci-ty le-gi-ble so-li-cit se-qua-ci-ty fla-gel-let i-ma-gine vi-va-ci-ty pre-ce-dent re-li-gion te[-]na-ci-ty pre-ci-pice li-ti-gious ve-ra-ci-ty re-ci-pe pro-di-gious a-da-gi-o de-ci[-]mal 2 be-li-ge-rent de-cim-ate ne-ces-sa-ry o-ri-gin-al la-cer[-]ate 2 ar-mi[-]ger-ous pa[-]ci-fy au-da-ci-ty ca-li-gin-ous pa-geant-ry ca-pa-ci[-]ty om-ni-gin-ous pa-gin-al fu-ga-ci-ty ver-ti-gin-ous re-gi-cide lo-qua-ci-ty re-fri-ger-ate re-gim-en men-da-ci-ty 2 2 re-gim-ent men-di-ci-ty le-gis-la-ti-on re-gis-ter di[-]la-cer-ate re-ci-ta-tion spe-ci-fy du-pli-ci-ty 2 spe-cim-en fe-li-ci-ty sa-cri-le-gious * G soft. † Exajjerate. ----- p. 97 e-le-a[-]gin-ous mul-ti-pli-ci-ty ve-lo-ci-ty au-then-ti-ci-ty per[-]spi-ca-ci-ty rhi-no-ce-ros e-las-ti-ci-ty per-ti-na-ci-ty 5 e-lec-tri-ci-ty* per-vi[-]ca-ci-ty an-a-lo-gic-al du-o-de-ci-mo 5 as-tro-lo-gic-al ab-o-ri-gen-es a-tro-ci-ty my-tho-log-ic-al ec-cen-tri-ci-ty* fe-ro-ci-ty ped-a-go-gic-al mu-cil-a-gin-ous 2 1 phi-lo-log-ic-al le-ger-de-main tau-to-log-ic-al 2 11 the-o-log-ic-al re-ci-ta-tive re[-]ci-pro-ci-ty The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule * Pronounced elektricity, ekcentricity. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE XXXVIII. Words in which h is pronounced before w, though written after it. Thus, what, when, whisper, pronounced hwat[,] hwen, hwisper; that is, hooat, hooen, hooisper. 1 whelm whurr whale when 3 wher-ret wheal whence wharf wher-ry wheat whet 5 wheth-er wheel which what whis-ste wheeze whiff 9 whim-sey while whig whirl whin-ny whilst whim 10 whis-per whine whin where whis-tle white whip whey whith-er why whisk 1 whit-loe 2 whist whee-dle whi-ster whelk whit whi-ting whit-tle whelp whiz whi-tish whim-per The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule. //I// ----- [page image] p. 98 In the following, with their compounds and derivatives, w is silent. 1 2 6 Whole whore who whom whoop whoose In the following with their compounds and derivatives, x is pronounced like gz, exact is pronounced egzact, &c. 2 ex-an-i-mate ex-haust Ex-act ex[-]as-per-ate ex-or-bit-ant ex-ist aux-il[-]iary ex-or-di-um ex-empt 1 5 ex-ult ex-ile ex-alt ex-am-ine ex-ude ex-ot-ic ex-am-ple ex-a[-]men ex-on-er-ate ex-em-plar ex-u-be-rance 2 ex-ec-u-tor 3 ex-ert ex-em[-]pli[-]fy ex-hort ex-er-cent In most or all other words, x is pronounced like ks; except at the beginning of Greek names, where it sounds like z. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE XL. The History of the Creation of the WORLD. IN six days God made the world, and all things that are in it. He made the sun to shine by day; and the moon to give light by night. He made all the beasts that walk on the earth, all the birds that fly in the air, and all the fish that swim in the sea. Each herb, & plant, & tree, is the work of his hands. All things both great and small, that live and move, and breathe in this wide world, to him do owe their birth, to him their life. And God saw that all things he had made were good. But as yet there was not a man to till the ground, so God made man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into him the breath of life, and gave him rule over all that he had made. And the man gave names to all the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and the fish of the sea. But ----- p. 99 there was not found an help meet for man; so God brought on him a deep sleep, and then took from his side a rib, of which he made a wife, and gave her to the man, and her name was Eve; and from these two came all the sons of men. All things are known to God, and though his throne of state be far on high, yet doth his eye look down to use in this lower world, and see all the ways of the sons of men. If we go out he marks our steps: and when we go in, no door can shut him from us. While we are by ourselves, he knows all our vain thoughts, and the ends we aim at; and when we talk to friend or foe, he hears our words, and views the good or harm we do to them or to ourselves. When we pray he notes our zeal. All the day long he minds how we spend our time, and no dark night can hide our works from him. If we play the cheat, he marks the fraud, and hears the least word of a false tongue. He sees if our hearts are hard to the poor, or if by alms we help their wants; if in our breast we pine at the rich, or if we are well pleased with our own estate. He knows all that we do; and be we w[h]ere we will he is sure to be with us. The Lord who made the ear of man, Must needs hear all of right; He made the eye, all things must then Be plain in his clear sight. The lord doth know the thoughts of man, His heart he sees most plain, And he, on high, man's thoughts doth scan, And sees they are but vain. But oh! that man is safe and sure, Whom thou dost deep in awe; ----- [page image] p. 100 And that his life may be most pure, Dost guide him in thy law: For he shall live in peace and rest, He fears not at his death; Love fills his heart, and hope his breast, With joy he yields his breath. ------------------------------------------------------------ T A B L E XLI. Irregular words, not comprised in the foregoing Tables. Written. Pronounced. aid-de-camp Ade-de-cong a-ny en-ny ap-ro-pos ap-pro-po bat-teau bat-to beau bo beaux boze been bin belles-let-tres bel-let-ter bu-reau bu-ro bu[-]ry ber-ry bu-sy biz-zy bu[-]si-ness biz-ness che-vaux-de-frise shev-o-de-freese co-lo-nel cur-nel comp-trol-er con-trol-er en[-]ten-dre en-taun-dre flam-beau flam-bo haut-boy ho-boy isle ile isl-and ile-and ma-ny men-ny o-cean o-shun port-man-teau port-man-to ren-dez-vous ren-da-voo right-eous ri-chus says sez said sed sous soo su-gar shoog-ar vis-count vee-count wo-men wim-in The compounds and derivatives follow the same rule. ----- p. 101 T A B L E XLII. The DESCRIPTION of a GOOD BOY. A GOOD Boy is dutiful to his father and mother, obedient to his master, and loving to all his play fellows. He is diligent in learning his book, and takes pleasure in improving himself in every thing that is worthy of praise. He rises early in the morning, makes himself clean and decent, and says his prayers. If he has done a fault, he confesses it, and is sorry for it; and scorns to tell a lie, though he might by that means conceal it. He loves to hear good advice, is thankful to those that give it him, and always follows it. He never swears, nor calls names, nor uses any ill words to his companions. He is never peevish and fretful, but always good humored. He scorns to steel [sic] or pilfer any thing from his play fellows; and would rather suffer wrong than do wrong to any of them. He is always ready to answer when he is asked a question, to do what he is bid, and to mind what is said to him. He is not a wrangler, nor quarrelsome, and keeps himself out of all kinds of mischief, which other boys run into. By this means he becomes, as he grows up, a man of sense and virtue; he is beloved and respected by all that know him; he lives in the world with credit and reputation, and when he dies is lamented by all his acquaintance. ============================================================ T A B L E XLIII. The DESCRIPTION of a BAD BOY. A BAD Boy is undutiful to his father and mother, disobedient and stubborn to his master, and illnatured to all his play fellows. He hates his book, and takes no pleasure in improving himself in any thing. He is sleepy and slothful in the morning, too lazy to clean himself, and too wicked to say his prayers. He is always in mischief, and when he has done a fault, will tell twenty lies in hopes to clear himself, which is only making bad worse. He hates that any body should give him god advice, and when they are out of sight will laugh at them. He swears and wrangles, and quarrels with his companions, and is //I 2// ----- [page image] p. 102 always in some dispute or other. He will steal whatsoever comes in his way; and if he is not catched, thinks it no crime, not considering that God sees whatsoever he does. He is frequently out of humour, and sullen and obstinate, so that he will neither do what he is bid, nor answer a question that is asked him. In short, he neglects every thing that he should learn, and minds nothing but play or mischief; by which means he becomes, as he grows up, a confirmed blockhead, incapable of any thing but wickedness or folly, despised by all men of sense and virtue, and generally dies a beggar. ============================================================ T A B L E XLIV. Proper Names of One Syllable. ANN, Bath, Charles, Dutch, Elk, France, French, Giles, Guy, Hague, Hugh, James, John Lyme, Luke, Lyn, Mark, Miles, Paul, Ralph, Ruth, Saul, Tray, Tweed, Wales, Welch. ============================================================ T A B L E XLV. Proper names of Two Syllables, the Accent on the First. Al-bert Cy-rus Fish-kill Al-fred Dan-vers Flo-rence Am-brose Dart-mouth Flush-ing Ar-nold Ded-ham Frank-ford Ar-thur Deer-field Fun-dy Au-stin Digh-ton Guild-ford An-des Der-by Gro-ton Ash-ley Doug-las God-frey Ber-nard Dud-ley Gil-bert Brad-ford Dur-ham God-ard Brain-tree E-rie Glov-er Brook-field Ed-win Ger-man Coop-er Eg-bert Had-ley Chi-li E-gypt Han-nah Cas-co En-field Hat-field Chi-na E-noch Hel-en Con-cord E-sau Her-od Clem[-]ent Est-her Hope-well ----- [p. 103] How-el Mis-tik Staf-ford Hub[-]art Nor-walk Stam-ford Hum-phry Nor-wich Stough-ton Hud-son Nor-ton Stock-bridge Hu-ron Natch[-]es Strat-ford Ips-wich Ox-ford Swan-zey Ja-cob Ob-long Sa-ble Je-sus Pal-mer Shaw-nese Jo-ab Pa-trick Tar-tar Jo-nah Pem-broke Ver-non Jo-seph Phe-be Ve-nice Kings-bridge Pitts-burg Wal-pole Lam-bert Pitts-field War-ren Lau-rence Plain-field War-wick Leop-old Pom-fret West-field Lei-cester Rich-ard Wes-ton Malden Ro-bert Wey-mouth Mans-field Reu-ben Wind-sor Med-ford Rut-land Wrent-ham Med-way Row-land Wood-bridge Men-don Samp-son Wood-stock Mil-ford Sand-wich Wa-bash Mil-ton Say-brook Yad-kin Mor-gan Shef-field Za-dock Mo-ses Sha-ron Zi-on Mo-hawk Schuyl-kill Zim-ri ============================================================ TABLE XLVI. Proper Names of Two Syllables, accented on the Second. Bre-ton* Man-tauk Bra-zil Champlain† Pe-dee Car-lisle Cham-blee† San-tee Chop-tank De-troit Pe-ru Roan-oke Belisle * Bre-toon † Ch is pronounced sh. ----- [page image] p. 104 1 Jon-a-than Eu-phra-tes Aa-ron Josh-u-a E-sai-as A-bra-ham Jan-i-za-ry E-ze-kiel A-sia Lyd-i-a Go-li-ah Bel-ze-bub Laz-a-rus Ga-la-tia E-phraim Leon-ard Ga-ma-li-el Ga-briel Mag-da-len Ho-se-a I-saac Nich-o-las Ho-ra-tio Mi-chael Ol-iv-er Jo-si-ah Ba-laam Phil-e-has Ju-de-a Ca-naan Pal[-]es[-]tine Je-ru-sa-lem 2 Par-i-see Mo-sa-ic-al Ab-sa-lom Reyn-old Phi-le-mon An-tho-ny Ser-a-phim Ti-be-ri-as Af-ri-ca Syr-i-a Zach-e-us Al-co-ran Tich-ic-us 2 An-ti-och Tim-o-thy A-mer-i-ca An-ti-christ Tus-ca-ny As-phal-ti-des Bab-y-lon Zach-a-ry As-syr-i-a Ben-ja-min 5 Bis-sex-tile Christ-o-pher Con-stan-tine Ca-per-na-um Cyp-ri-an Dom-in-ic E-gyp-tian Can-a-da Sol-o-mon E-piph-a-ny Dan-iel 1 Ha-bak-kuk Ed-ward A-chai-a Le-vit-ic-us Ex-o-dus Cor-nel[-]ius Mel-chis-e-dec Fred-er-ic Cy-re-ne Na-than-iel Greg-o-ry Chal-da-ic Phil-lip-pi Gen-e-sis Da-ri-us Pris-cil-la Hum-phry Di-a-na Pam-phil-ia Hep-zi-bah De-me-tri-us Pa-lat-in-ate Is-rael E-li-sha Pe-nel-o-pe Jer-i-cho E-li[-]jah Su-san-na Jes-u[-]it E-li-as ----- p. 105 Se-bas-tian Ma-co-do-ni-a 2 2 Naz-a-rene A-has-u-e-rus A-poc-ry-pha Ne-he-mi-ah Ar-i-ma-the-a Bar-thol-o-mew Re-ho-bo-am E-paph-ro-di-tus Chrys[-]os-tom Sad-du-cee La-o-di-ce-a Go-mor-rah Theo-o-d-sius* 2 Gib-ral-tar Thy-a-ti-ra Neb-u-chad-nez-zar Ma-hom-et Tra-co-ni-tis 4 Te-oph-il-us Tran-syl-va-nia Ar-chi-bald Ther-mom-e-ter Zed-e-ki-ah Bar-na-bas Teu-ton[-]nic 2 4 1 An-a-bap-tist Da-mas-cus An-a-ni-as Di-o-nys-i-us* 4 Ba-al-ze-bub Hi-e-rap-o-lis A-lex-an-der E-le-a-zar Neb-u-zar-a-dan 4 Ethi-o-pi-a 2 Ec-cle-si-as-tes Hez-e-ki-ah Ar[-]e-op-a-gus 3 Jer-e-mi-ah Deu-ter-on-o-my Clau-di-as Jer-o-bo-am E[-]qui-noc-tial Ly-ca-o-ni-a He[-]li-op-o-lis Ch in this table except in Archibald, sounds like k. * Pronounced The-o-do-shus, Di-o-nish-us[.] In almost all scripture names of the Old Testament, t retains its propoer sound, as in Peletiah; ch sounds like k as in Chaldean, g is generally hard before i, as in Gibeon. The letters ai, which represent the Hebrew ain, are generally pronounced like the first sound of a. In the New Testament tia and cia, are pronounced as she, in Galatia, &c. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE XLVIII. Other Names of Three Syllables accented on the First. Am-a-zon Clav-er-ak Dor-ches-ter Bev-er-ly Ches-a-peak Dan-bu-ry Bar-ring-ton Col-ches-ter Eg-re-mont Ben-ning-ton Cher-o-kee Ex-e-ter Bran-dy-wine Cov-en-try Farm-ing-ton ----- [page image] p. 106 Hei-dle-berg Leb-a-non Scar-bo-rough Hunt-ing-ton Lan-sing-burg Sen-e-ca Haw-win-ton Lex-ing-ton Ston-ing=ton Es-ki-maux Lou-is-burg Sun-der-land Mer-ri-mak Mex-i-co Son-dis-field Hat-e-ras Man-ches-ter Sims-bu-ry In-di-a Marl-bo-rough Tyr-ing-ham Is-sa-char Mor-de-cai Tor-ring-ton Jef-fe-ry Mus-co-vy Vol-un-town Ju-li-us New-bu-ry Wal-lings-ford Ken-sing-ton New-found-land Weth-ers-field Kil-lings-worth O-kri-kok Win-ches-ter Lab-ra-dor Sa-lis-bu[-]ry Wor-thing-ton ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE XLIX. Proper Names of Three Syllables, accented on the Second. Ber-mu-da Ti-o-ga O-ge-chee Ca-taw-ba Wi-om-ing O-hi-o Os-we-go Hen-lo-pen Me-soo-ri Che-buk-to Pe-tux-ent Ken-tuck-y Pe-nob-scot Pe-taps-ko Mi-am-ee E-so-pus Po-to-mak Se-tak-et Sko-har-ry E-dis-to Wa-to-ga The principal Accent is on the last Syllable, and the half accent on the First. Mon-tre-al Con-ga-ree Ma-gel-lan I-ro-quois Cick-e-saw Par-a-quay Mi-chi-gan* Wa-ter-ee Trin-i-dad Gen-e-see Il-le-nois Su-ri-nam Ken-ne-bek Da-ri-en O-ro-noke *Ch pronounced sh. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE L. Proper Names of Four and Five Syllables, accented on the Second. Eu-ro-pe-an Pis-cat-a-qua Ma-mar-o-nek Ske-nec-ta-dy On-ta-ri-o Wi-com-i-ca ----- p. 107 Accented on the Third and First. Al-le-ga-ny Car-tha-ge-na Ap-po-mat-toks Tus-ke-ro-ra Con-e-sto-ga Sus-que-han-nah Ni-a-ga-ra Nar-ra-gan-set Rap-pa-han-nok Lou-i-sa-na Sar-a-to-ga Ap-a-lach-i-an O-non-da-ga A-lex-an-dri-a Cah-no-wa-ga Accented on the Fourth and First. Ti-con-de-ro-ga Mich-il-i-mak-i-nak Sa-ga-da-hok ------------------------------------------------------------ T A B L E LI. Of Numbers. Fig'res. Let'rs. Names. Numerical Adjectives. 1 I one first 2 II two second 3 III three third 4 IV four fourth 5 V five fifth 6 VI six sixth 7 VII seven seventh 8 VIII eight eighth 9 IX nine ninth 10 X ten tenth 11 XI eleven eleventh 12 XII twelve twelfth 13 XIII thirteen thirteenth 14 XIV fourteen fourteenth 15 XV fifteen fifteenth 16 XVI sixteen sixteenth 17 XVII seventeen seventeenth 18 XVIII eighteen eighteenth 19 XIX nineteen nineteenth 20 XX twenty twentieth 21 XXI twenty one twenty first 22 XXII twenty two twenty second 30 XXX thirty thirtieth 31 XXXI thirty one thirty first 40 XL forty fortieth ----- [page image] p. 108 50 L fifty fiftieth 60 LX sixty sixtieth 70 LXX seventy seventieth 80 LXXX eighty eightieth 90 XC ninety ninetieth 100 C one hundred one hundredth 200 CC two hundred two hundredth 300 CCC three hundred three hundredth 400 CCCC four hundred four hundredth 500 D five hundred five hundredth 600 DC six hundred six hundredth 700 DCC seven hundred seven hundredth 800 DCCC eight hundred eight hundredth 900 DCCCC nine hundred nine hundredth, &c. 1000 M one thousand 1800 MDCCC One thousand eight hundred. N. B. In all numerical adjectives, th has its proper sound, as in think. ============================================================ T A B L E LII. Words, the same in Sound, but different in Spelling and Signification. N. B. Roman letters are silent, except s. AIL, to be troubled Base, vile Ale, malt liquor Bass, in music Air, an element Beer, a liquor Are, plural of is or am Bier, to carry the dead Heir, to an estate Ber-ry, a small fruit All, the whole BU-RY, to inter the dead Awl, an instrument Beat, to strike Al-tar, for sacrifice Beet, a root al-ter, to change Blew, did blow Ant, a Pismire Blue, colour Aunt, uncle's wife Boar, a male swine As-cent, steepness Bore, to make a hole As-sent, an agreement Bolt, for a door Au-ger, an instrument Boult, to sift Au-gur, one who foretells Bow, to bend Bail, surety Bough, a branch Bale, a pack of goods Bow, to shoot with Ball, a round substance Beau, a gay fellow Bawl, to cry aloud Bred, brought up Bare, naked Bread, food Bear, to suffer Bur-row, for Rabbits Bear, a beast Bur-rough, a town corporate ----- p. 109 By, a particle Dew, from Heaven Buy, to purchase Due, owed Cain, a man's name Die, to expire Cane, a shrub or staff Dye, to colour Call, to cry out Doe, a female deer Caul, of a wig, or bowels Dough, bread unbaked Can-non, a large gun Dun, brown colour Can-on[,] a rule Done, performed Can vass, to examine Fane, a weather cock Can vas, coarse cloth Fein, gladly Ceil-ing, of a room Feign, to dissemble Seal-ing, setting of a seal Faint, weary Cell, a hut Feint, a false march Sell, to dispose of Fair, comely Cen-tu ry, a hundred years Fare, food, customary duty, &c. Cen tau-ry[,] an herb Fel-lon, a whitlow Chol-er, wrath Fel-on, a crimminal [sic] Col lar, for the neck Flea, an insect Cord, a small rope Flee, to run away Chord, in music Flour, of wheat Ci-on, a young shoot Flow-er, of the field Si-on, a mountain Fourth, in number Cite, to summon Forth, abroad Sight, seeing Foul, nasty Site, situation Fowl, a bird Chron-ic-al[,] of long continuance Gilt, with gold Chron-i-cle, a history [G]uilt, crime Course, order, or direction Grate, for coals Coarse, not fine Great, large Com-ple-ment, a full number Groan, to sigh Com-pli-ment, expression of Grown, increased civility. Hail, to salute, or frozen drops Cous-in, a relation of rain Coz-en, to cheat Hale, to salute, sound, healthy Coun-cil, an assembly Hart, a beast Coun-sel, advice Heart, the seat of life Cur-rant, a berry Hare, an animal Cur-rent, passing or a stream Hair, of the head Cour-i-er, a messenger Here, in this place Cur-ri-er, a dresser of leather Hear, to hearken Deer, a wild animal Hew, to cut Dear, of great price Hue, colour //K// ----- [page image] p. 110 Him, that man Made, finished Hymn, a sacred song Maid, an unmarried woman Hire, wages Main, the chief High-er, more high Mane, of a horse Heel, of the foot Male, the he kind Heal, to cure Mail, armour, or a packet I, myself Man-ner, mode, or custom Eye, organ of sight Man-or, a lordship Isle, an island Meet, to come together He, of a church Meat, flesh In, within Mete, measure Inn, a tavern Mite, an insect In-dite, to compose Might, strength In-dict, to prosecute Met-al[,] gold or silver Kill, to slay Met-tle, briskness Kiln, of brick Naught, bad Knave, a dishonest man Nought[,] none Nave, of a wheel Nay, no Knight, by honor Neigh, as a horse Night[,] the evening Oar, to row with Know, to be acquainted Ore[,] metal not separated No, not so Oh, alas Knoew, did know Owe, to be indebted New, not old One, in number Knot, made by tying Won, past time or win Not, denying Our, belonging Lade, to dip water Hour, sixty minutes Laid, placed Pale, wanting colour Lain, did lie Pail, a vessel Lane, a narrow passage Pain, torment Leek, a root Pane, a square of glass Leak, to run out Peel, the outside Les-son, a reading Peal, upon the bells Les-sen, to diminish Pear, a fruit Li-ar, a teller of lies Pare, to cut off Lyre, a harp Plain, even or level Led, did lead Plane, to make smooth Lead, heavy metal Plate[,] a flat piece of metal Lie, a falsehood also to rest on Plait, a fold in a garment a bed Pray, to impolore Lye, water drained through Prey, booty ashes, Prin-ci-pal, chief Lo, behold Prin-ci-ple, first rule Low, humble ----- p. 111 Proph-et, a foreteller So, thus Prof-it, advantage Sow, to scatter Peace, tranquility Sum, the whole Piece, a part Some, particle Rain, falling water Sun, a fountain of light Rein, of a bridle Son, a Male child Reign, to rule Sore, an ulcer Red, colour Soar, to mount up Read, did read Stare, to look earnestly Reed, a shrub Stair, a step Read, to peruse Steel, hrd metal Rest, ease Steal, to take away without liberty Wrest, to fore Straight, not crooked Rice, a sort of corn Strit, narrow Rise, origin Suc-cor, help Rye, a sort of grain Suck-er, a yung twig Wry, crooked Sleight, dexterity Ring, to sound Slight, to despise Wring[,] to twist Soal, of the foot Rite, ceremony Soul, spirit Right, just Tax, a rate Write, to f[or]m letters with a pen Tacks, small nails Wright, a workman Tale, a story Rode, did ride Tail, the end Road, the highway Tare, weight allowed Roe, a deer Tear, to rend Row, a rank Team, of cattle or horses Ruff, a neckcloth Teem, to go with young Rough, not smooth Their, belonging to them Sail, of a ship There, in that place Sale, selling The, a particle Seen, beheld Thee, yourself Scene, of a stage Too, likewise See, to behold Two, twice one Sea, the ocean Tow, to drag after Sent, ordered away Toe, of a foot Scent, small Vale, a valley Se-ni-or, elder. Veil, a covering Seign-nor, a Lord Vein, for the blood Shore, side of a river Vane, to shew the course of the Shoar, a prop wind Sink, to go down Vice, sin Cinque, five Vise, a screw ----- [page image] p. 112 Wait, to carry Weigh, to poise Weight, heaviness Week, seven days Wear, to put on Weak, not strong Ware, merchandise Wood, trees Were, past time plu. of am Would, was willing Waste, to spend You, plural of thee Waist, the middle Yew, a tree Way, road In this table I have omitted several words which are found in Dilworth and Fenning; either because the English differs from the American pronunciation, or because they have inserted words together as nearly the same in sound, which may lead into error. For instance, the words consort and concert are placed together in Dilworth, and they are commonly pronounced alike; but it is an offence against propriety, and I choose to admit no words but such as sound exactly alike. ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE LIII. OF ABBREVIATIONS. Ep. Epistle A. B. Batchelor of Arts Eng. English A. D. in the year of our Lord Eph. Ephesians A. M. Master of Arts, before Esa. Esaias noon, or in the year of the Ex. Example, or Exodus world. Feb. February Bart. Baronet Fr. France, or Francis B. D. Batchelor of Divinity F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal C. or Cent. an hundred Society Capt. Captain Gal. Galatians Col. Colonel Gen. Genesis Cant. Canticles Gent. Gentlemen Chap. Chapter Geo. George Chron. Chronicles G. R. George the King Co. Company Heb. Hebrews Com. Commissioner Hon. Honorable Cr. Credit Hun. Hundred Cwt. Hundred weight Ibidem. Ibid. in the same place D. D. Doctor of Divinity Isa. Isaiah Dr. Doctor, or Debtor i. e. that is Dec. December Id. the same Dep. Deputy Ja. James Deut. Deuteronomy Jac. Jacob Do. or Ditto, the same Josh. Joshua e. g. for example K. King Eccl. Ecclesiastes Km. Kingdom ----- p. 113 Kt. Knight P. M. Afternoon L. Lord, or Lady P. S. Postscript Lev. Leviticus Ps. Psalm Lieut. Lieutenant Q. Question, Queen L. L. D. Doctor of Laws q. d. as if he should say L. S. the place of the Seal q.l. as much as you please Lond. London Regr. Register M. Marquis Rev. Revelation, Reverend M. B. Batchelor of Physic Rt. Hon. Right Honourable Mr. Master S. South and Shilling Messrs. gentlemen, Sirs St. Saint Mrs. Mistress Sept[.] September M. S. Manuscript Serj. Serjeant M. S. S. Manuscripts S. T. P. Professor or Divinity Mat. Mathew S. T. D. Doctor of Divinity Math. Mathematics ss. To wit, namely. N. B. take particular notice Teho. Theophilus Nov. November Tho. Thomas No. Number Thess. Thessalonians N. S. New style V. or vide, see Obj. Objection Viz. to wit, namely O. S. Old style Wm. William Parl. Parliament Wp. Worship Per cent. by the hundred &. and Pet. Peter &c. and so forth Phil. Philip U. S. A. United States of Philom. a lover of learning America ------------------------------------------------------------ TABLE LIV. Names of the principal Kingdoms and States of Europe. Kingdoms. Capital Cities. No. of Inhabitants. Eng-land Lon-don 7,000,000 Scot-land E-din-burgh 2,000,000 Ire-land Dub-lin 2,200,000 France Par-is 24,000,000 Spain Mad-rid 11,000,000 Por-tu-gal Lis-bon 2,000,000 Flan-ders Brus-sels 1,600,000 I-ta-ly Rome 16,000,000 Sar-di-nia Cag-li-a-ri, Tu-rin 2,000,000 Swit-zer-land Bern 2,000,000 *Including several republics, as well as the Pope's dominions //K 2// ----- [page image] p. 114 Kingdoms. Capital Cities[.] No. of Inhabitants. Bo-he-mi-a Prague 3,000,000 Hun-ga-ry Pres-burgh 2,500,000 Nor-way Ber-gen } Den-mark Co[-]pen-ha-gen} 2,444,000 Swe-den Stock-holm Rus-sia Pe-ters-burgh 1,500,000 Prus-sia Ber-lin 24,000,000 Po-land War-saw 6,000,000 Tur-key† Con-stan-ti-no-ple 9,000,000 †In Europe. ------------------------------------------------------------ ISLANDS OF THE WEST INDIES. S. stands for Spanish; F. for French; E. for English; D. for Dutch; Dan. for Danish; [sic] Cu-ba S. St. Vin-cent's E. His-pan-i-o-la F. St. Mar-tin's E. Ja-mai-ca* E. St. Lu-cia†† F. An-ti-gua† E. To-ba-go E. Bar-ba-does E Ne-vis E. Mar-ti-ni-co‡ F. Gren-a-da E. Por-to-ri-co} S. Ber-mu-da E. Dom-i-ni-co }§ E. An-guil-la E. Gua-da-loupe¶ F. Mont-se-rat E. Eu-sta-tia D. Cur-ra-coe‡[‡] D. St. Croix** Dan. St. Pierre F. St. Chris-to-pher's E. Mi-que-lon§§ F. Ba-ha-ma E. St. Tho-mas Dan. * Pronounced Jamaca. † Antega. ‡ Martineeko. ‡ Domineeko Porto Reeko. ¶ Guadaloop. ** Santa Cruse. †† St. Lucee. ‡‡ Curreso. §§ Miqueloon. ============================================================ PROVINCES IN NORTH AMERICA. Provinces. Principal Towns. Can-a-da Que-bec E. No-va Sco-tia Hal-i-fax E. East Flo-ri-da St. Au-gus[-]tine* S. West Flo-ri-da Pen-sa-co-la S. * Augusteen. ============================================================ TABLE LV. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. States. Capital Towns. Inhabitants. New-hamp-shire Ports-mouth 141,885 Mas-sa-chu-setts Bos-ton 475,027 ----- p. 115 States. Capital Towns. Inhabitants. Rhode-Island New-port 68,825 Con-nec-ti-cut Hart-ford 237,946 New-York New-York 340,120 New-Jer-sey Tren-ton 184,139 Pen-syl-va-ni-a Phi-la-del-phi-a 434,373 Del-a-ware New-Cas-tle 59,094 Ma-ry-land Bal-ti-more 319,728 Vir-gin-i-a Rich-mond 747,610 North Ca-ro-li-na New-bern 393,751 South Ca-ro-li-na Charles-ton 249,073 Geor-gi-a Sa-va[-]nah 82,548 Ver-mont Ben-ning-ton 85,539 Ken-tuc-ky Lex-ing-ton 73,077 Ten-es-see Knox-ville 60,000 NEW-HAMPSHIRE. Counties.--Rock-ing-ham, Hils-bo-rough, Stat-ford, Che-shire, Graf-ton. MASSACHUSETTS. Counties. Capital Towns. Suf-folk Bos-ton Nor-folk Ded-ham Es-sex Sa-lem Mid-dle-sex Cam-bridge Hamp[-]shire Spring-field, and North-amp-ton Plym[-]outh Plym-outh Barn-sta-ble Barn-sta-ble Bris-tol Taun-ton York York Dukes-Coun-ty Ed-gar-ton Nan-tuck-et Sher-burne Worce-ster Worce-ster Cum[-]ber[-]land Port-land Lin-coln Pow-nal-bo-rough Berk-shire Great-Bar-ring-ton Han-cock Pe-nob-scot Wash-ing-ton Ma-chi-as RHODE-ISLAND. Counties. Capital Towns. New-port New-port Wash[-]ing[-]ton South-King-ston Pro-vi-dence Pro-vi-dence Kent East-Green-wich Bris-tol Bris-tol ----- [page image] p. 116 Counties. Capital Towns. Hart-ford Hart-ford New Ha-ven New Ha-ven New Lon-don New Lon-don Wind-ham Wind-ham Fair-field Fair-field Litch-field Litch-field Mid-dle-sex Mid-dle-town Tol-and Tol-and NEW-YORK. Counties. Capital Towns. New-York The City Rich-mond Rich-mond King's-coun-ty Flat-bush Queen's-coun-ty Ja-mai-ca Suf-folk South-hold Al-ba-ny Al-ba-ny West Ches-ter West Ches-ter Or-ange Go-shen Ul-ster King-ston Duch-ess Pough-keep-sie* Mont-go-me-ry John-stown Wash-ing-ton Sa-lem Co[-]lum-bi-a Clav-er-ak Clin-ton Platts-burg Scho-hary-ry Scho-ha-ry Ot-se-go Coop-er's Town Her-ke-mer Whites-town On-ta-rio Can-an-dar-qua Rens-se-laer Troy Ti-o-ga New-town Steu-ben Bath On-on-da-go Cip-i-o * Pronounced Pokepse. NEW-JERSEY. Counties. Capital Towns. Ber-gen Ber-gen Mid-dle-sex Am-boy Es-sex New-ark Som-er-set Prince-ton Mon-mouth Free-hold Mor-ris Mor-ris-town Cum-ber-land Bridge-town ----- p. 117 Counties. Capital Towns. Sus-sex New-ton Bur-ling-ton Bur-ling-ton Glouce-ster Had-don-field Sa-lem Sa-lem Hun-ter-don Tren-ton Cape May PENNSYLVANIA. Counties. Capital Towns. Phi-la-del-phi-a Phi-la-del-phia Ches-ter West Ches-ter Bucks New-town Lan-cas-ter Lan-cas-ter York York Cum-ber-land Car-lisle Berks Read-ing North-amp-ton Eas-ton Bed-ford Bed-ford North-um-ber-land Sun-bu-ry West-more-land Greens-burg Wash-ing-ton Wash-ing-ton Frank-lin Cham-bers-ton Dau-phin Har-ris-burgh Fay-ette Un-ion Lu-zerne Wilks-barre Mont-go-me-ry Nor-ris-town Del-a-ware Ches-ter Miff-lin Lew-is-burgh Hunt-ing-don Hunt-ing-don Al-le-ga-ny Pitts-burgh DELAWARE. Counties. Capital Towns. New Cas-tle New Cas-tle Kent Do-ver Sus-sex Lew-is-town MARYLAND. Counties. Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester, Talbot, Queen Ann's, Kent, Caroline, Cecil, Washington, St. Mary's Charles, Prince George, Montgomery, Frederick, Anne Arundle, Baltimore, Hartford, Calvert, Allegany. VIRGINIA. Counties.--Amherst, Henrico, Richmond, Ohio, Prince William, Charlotte, Pendleton, James City, Northumberland, Nansemond, Buckingham, King and Queen, Stafford, Mecklenburgh, ----- [page image] p. 118 Louisa, Dinwiddie, Essex, York, Prince, Edward, Fairfax, Goochland, Culpepper, Cumberland, Brunswick, Fauquier, Middlesex, Warwick, Caroline, Southampton, Botetourt, Spottylvania, Norfolk, Amelia, Elizabeth City, Shanandoah, Monongahela, Bedford, Randolph, Rockingham, Loudon, Frederick, Montgomery, Halifax, Rockbridge, Northampton, Prince George, Hampshire, Augusta, Berkley, Greenbrier, Pittsylvania, Surry, Accomack, Westmoreland[,] Washington, Charles City, Isle of Wight[,] Hanover, King George, Gloucester, Fluvanna, Princess Ann, Albermarle, New Kent, Lunenberg, Sussex, Lancaster, Powhatan, Orange, Henry, Chesterfield, Russel, Hardy, King William, Campbell, Franklin, Greensville, Harrison. KENTUCKY. Counties. Capital Towns. Counties. Capital Towns. Jef-fer-son Lou-is-ville Mad-i-son Fay-ette Lex-ing-ton Lin-coln Bour-bon Wood-ford Mer[-]cer Dan-ville Ma-son Nel-son Beards-town Wash-ing-ton NORTH CAROLINA. This State is divided into Eight Districts. 1. EDENTON. Counties--Currituck, Camden, Pasquetanl, Perquimons, Chowan, Gates, Herford, Bertie, Tyrrel. 2. HALIFAX[.] Counties.--Northampton, Halifax, Franklin, Warren, Nash, Edgecomb, Martin. 3. NEWBERN. Counties.--Craven, Dobbs, Johnston, Pitt, Beaufort, Carten, Jones, Wayne, Hyde. 4. WILMINGTON[.] Counties--Onslow, New-Hanover, Brunswick, Bladen, Duplin. 5. HILLSBOROUGH. Counties--Granville, Caswell, Orange, Wake, Randolph, Chatham. 6. MORGAN. Counties--Burke, Wilks, Rutherford, Lincoln. 7. SALISBURY. Counties--Rowan, Mecklenburgh, Guildford[,] Surry, Montgomery, Iredell, Rockingham, Stokes. 8. FAYETTE. Counties--Cumberland, Fayetteville, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Samson, Anson. SOUTH CAROLINA. This State is divided into Seven Districts. 1. NINETY SIX. Counties--Abbeville, Edgefield, Pendleton, Greenville, Union, Newburn, Laurens, Spartenburg. 2. CAMDEN. Counties.--Clarendon, Fairfield, Claremont, Richland, Lancaster, York, Chester. 3. CHERAWS. Counties--Marlborough Chesterfield, Darlington. ----- p. 119 4. GEORGETOWN. Counties--Winyaw, Williamsburgh, Kingston, Liberty. 5. CHARLESTON. Counties--Charleston, Washington, Marion, Berkeley, Dorchester, Creek, Bartholomew, Colleton. 6. BEAUFORT. Counties--Hilton, Lincoln, Shrewsbury, Granville. 7. ORANGESBURGH. Counties--Lewisburgh, Lexington, Orange, Winter. GEORGIA. Counties. Capital Towns. Counties. Capital Towns. Chat-ham Sa-van-nah Green Greens-burgh Ef-fing-ham Eb-en-e-zer Wash-ing-ton Gol-phin-ton Burke Waynesborough Li-ber-ty Sun-bu-ry Rich-mond Au-gus-ta Glyn Bruns-wick Wilkes Wash-ing-ton Cam-den St. Pa-tricks Frank-lin Bour-gon on the Missisippi, unsettled. Explanation of the pauses and other characters used in writing. A Comma (,) is a pause of one syllable. A Semicolon (;) two. A Colon (:) four. A Period (.) six. An Interrogation point (?) shows when a question is asked; as, Whom do you see? An Exclamation point (!) is a mark of wonder or surprise; as, O the folly of sinners! The pause of these two points is the same as a colon or period; and the sentence should usually be closed with a raised tone of voice. () A Parenthesis includes a part of a sentence, which is not necessary to make sense, and should be read quicker, and in a weaker tone of voice. [] Brackets or Hooks, include words that serve to explain a foregoing word or sentence. - A Hyphen joins words or syllables; as, window-glass. ' An Apostrophe shows when a letter is omitted; as us'd for used. ^ A Carat shows where a word or number of words are omitted my through mistake; as, as this is book. ^ " A Quotation or double comma, includes a passage that is taken from some other author in his own words. pointing hand The Index points to some remarkable passage. ¶ The Paragraph begins a new subject. § The Section is used to divide chapters. * † ‡ || An Asterisk, and other references, point to a note in the margin or bottom of a page. ----- [page image] [p. 120] A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR: BEING AN ABRIDGEMENT OF THE SECOND PART OF THE INSTITUTE. ---+--- OF GRAMMAR. Q. WHAT is Grammar? A. Grammar is the art of expressing thoughts by words with propriety and dispatch. Q. What are the elements of language? A. Letters, which compose words. Q. What does English Grammar teach? A. The true principles and idioms* of the English Language. OF WORDS. Q. How may words be divided? A. Into six classes or parts of speech: nouns, articles, pronounces, adjectives, verbs, abbreviations. OF NOUNS. Q. What is a noun? A. The name of any person, place, or thing; as, John, Hartford, paper. Q. How are nouns divided? A. Into proper names, which are limited to particular persons, places, &c. as, Boston, Thomas, Potomak; and common names, which belong to sorts of things; as birds, books. Q. How is the signification of common nouns restrained or limited? A. By the two little words a and the called articles. [Q]. Explain the use of each. A. A confines the name to a single thing, but leaves it uncertain which is meant; as, a tree. The is used when the particular thing or things mentioned are supposed to be known; as, the twelve tribes. Q. How many numbers are there? A. Two, the singular and the plural. The singular speaks of one: as, book: the plural of more; as, books. * Idioms are modes of speaking or writing, which are peculiar to a language. ----- p. 121 Q. How is the plural formed? A. By adding s or es to the singular; as paper, papers, fox, foxes. Q. What exceptions are there to this rule? A. Some nouns, in which f is changed into v in the plural; as, life, wife; lives, wives. Some in which y is changed into ies; as, vanity, vanities; and some more irregular words; as; man men; foot, feet. Q. What cases are there in English? A. The nominative, which usually stands before a verb; as, the boy writes: the possessive, which takes an s with a comma, and denotes property; as, John's hat: the objective, which follows a verb or preposition; as, he honours virtue, or, it is an honour to him. Q. How many genders are there? A. There are two genders, the masculine which comprehends all males; and the feminine which comprehends all females.-- Things without life have no gender. Q. How are the different genders expressed? A. Generally by the ending ess; as, actress, heiress: sometimes by he and she; as, a he goat, a she-goat: sometimes by man and maid; as, a man-servant, a maid-servant. Sometimes the feminine ends in ix; as executrix. OF PRONOUNS. Q. What is a pronoun? A. A small word that stands for a noun; as, "This is a man of worth; treat him with respect." The pronoun him supplies the place of man. Q. Which are called the personal pronouns? A. I, thou, he, she; we, ye or you, they. 1st. The person speaking calls himself I. 2d. The person spoken to is called thou. 3d. The person spoken of is called if a male, he--if a female she; when a thing is spoken of, it is called it. The plural of I is we; the plural of thou is ye or you--the plural of he, she or it, is they. Q. What difference is there in the use of ye and you? A. Ye is used in the solemn style--you in common discourse; you is also used, in familiar language, for thou, which is used principally in the addresses to the Deity. Q. How do these pronouns vary in the cases? A. Thus: //L// ----- [page image] p. 122 Singular. Nominative. Possessive. Objective. I mine me thou thine thee he his him she hers her it its it Plural. we ours us ye or you yours you they theirs them Q. What other words are called pronouns? A. My, thy, her, our, your, their, are all called prenominal pronouns; because they are joined with nouns. This, that, other, any, some, one, none, are called definitive pronouns, because they limit the significance of the noun to which they refer. Q. Are any of these varied? A. This, that, and other, make, in the plural, these, those, and others. Q. What other pronouns are there in English? Q. Who, which, and what. These are called relatives, because they relate to some foregoing nouns: except when they ask questions; then they are called interrogative. What, has the sense of that, which; except in asking questions. Q. Have the relatives any variations? A. Who is thus varied in the cases--Nom. who--Poss. whose; Object. whom. Q. What name is given to each, every, other? A. That of distributives; because they denote a number of particulars, taken separately; as "There are five boys, each of whom is able to read." Q. What is the use of own and self? A. They ar added to pronouns, to express an idea with force. Self makes selves in the plural. OF ADJECTIVES. Q. What is an adjective? A. A word which expresses some quality or circumstances of a noun; as a wise man, a young woman, two men. Q. Have adjectives any variations? A. Adjectives, which express qualities, capable of being increased or diminished, are varied to express comparison, thus;--wise, wiser, wisest--cold, colder, coldest. Q. What are the degrees of comparison called? A. The positive, comparative, and superlative. The positive ----- p. 123 expresses the simple quality; as, wise, cold--the comparative expresses a quality in a greater or less degree; as, wiser, colder, less wise--the superlative expresses a quality in the greatest, or least possible degree; as, wisest, coldest, least wise. Most adjectives may be compared by more and most, less and least; as, more generous, or less generous, &c. OF VERBS. Q. What is a verb? A. A part of speech, signifying action or bing. Q. How many kinds of verbs are there? A. Four; person, number, time, and mode. Q. How many persons are used with verbs? A. Three; as, in the singular number, I write, thou writest, he writes. In the plural, we write, ye or you write, they write. Q. How many times or tenses are there? A. Three--present past, and future. An action may be now doing; as, I write or am writing. The verb is then said to be in the present tense. An action may have been done some time ago; as I wrote, or have written. The verb is then in the past time. When the action is yet to come, the verb is in the future time; as I shall or will write. Q. What is mode in grammar? A. The manner of representing action or being. Q. How do the English express tiem and mode? A. Principally by the means of several words called auxiliaries or helpers; viz. do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, should, would, could, and must. Q. What are the modes? A. The Infinitive, the Indicative, the Imperative, and the Subjunctive. Q. Explain them. A. The Infinitive expresses action or being, without limitation of person or number; as, to write. The Indicative shows or declares an action or being; as, I write, I am; or some circumstance of action or being; as, I can write; I must sleep; or asks a question; as do I write? The Imperative commands exhorts, or prays; as, write; go; do thou grant. ----- [page image] p. 124 The Subjunctive expresses action or being under some condition or uncertainty; and is commonly preceded by a conjunction, adverb, or some other word; as, if I write; though he slay me; I wish I were in the Elysian fields. Q. What are participles? A. They are words which are formed from verbs, and have the nature of verbs, nouns or adjectives. Q. How do they end? A. in d, t, n, or ing. Thus from the verbs, move, teach, write, go--are formed the participles, moved, taught[,] written, going. Q. What is the use of do as a helping word? A. It has four uses, 1st. to express emphasis or opposition; as, "Perdition catch my soul, but I do love thee." 2d. To save the repetition of another verb; as, he writes better than you do; that is better than you write. 3d. To ask a question; as, "do they write?" 4th. It is elegantly used in negative sentences; as, "he does not walk." In all other cases, it is obsolete or inelegant. Q. What is the use of be and have? A. As helpers, they are signs of time. Q. What is the use of shall? A. In the first person it foretells; as, "I shall go; we shall speak." Q. What is the use of would? A. In the first person it denotes a past or conditional promise, or mere inclination. It is often used in the present time, in declaratory phrases; as, "I would not choose any." In the second and third persons it expresses inclination, "he would not go; you would not answer." Q. What is the use of should? A. In the first person it commonly expresses event merely; as, I should write if I had an opportunity." In the second and third persons it expresses duty or obligation; as, you should help the poor; he should go to school. When an emphasis is laid on should or would, it varies their meaning. ----- p. 125 The Helping Verbs are thus varied. Present Time. To do To have Can I do I have I can Thou doest or dost Thou hast Thou canst He does or doth He has or hath He can We do We have We can Ye or you do Ye or you have Ye or you can They do They have They can Past time I did I had I could Thou didst Thou hadst Thou couldst He did He had He could We did We had We could Ye or you did Ye or you had Ye or you could They did They had They could Present time May Shall Will I may I shall I will Thou mayest Thou shalt Thou wilt He may He shall He will We may We shall We will Ye or you may Ye or you shall Ye or you will They may They shall They will Past time. I might I should I would Thou mightest Thou shouldst Thou wouldst He might He should He would We might We should We would Ye or you might Ye or you should Ye or you would They might They should They would Must has no variation. INFINITIVE MOOD. Present. To be Past. To have been INDICATIVE MOOD. Present Time. I am We are Thou art Ye or you are He is They are I may be, &c. I would be, &c. } I can be, &c. I should be, &c.} are sometimes used I must be, &c. } in this tense Past time. I was We were Thou wast Ye or you were He was They were //L 2// ----- [page image] p. 126 Past time. I have been, &c. I must be, &c. I had been, &c. I could be, &c. I might be, &c. I would be, &c. I should be, &c. I might have been, &c. I would have been, &c. I could have been, &c. I should have been, &c. I must have been, &c. I may have been, &c. Future Time. I shall be, &c. I shall have been, &c. I will be, &c. I will have been, &c. IMPERATIVE MODE. Be thou, or Be ye or you Do thou be Do ye or you be SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. Present Time. If I am, &c. If we are, &c. I were We were Thou wert Ye or you were He were They were If I may be, &c. If I could be, &c. I can be, &c. I would be, &c. I must be, &c. I might be, &c. The auxiliary is some times omitted, If I be, &c. Past Time. If I was, &c. If I could have been, &c. I have been, &c. I would have been, &c. I had been, &c. I should have been, &c. I could be, &c. I must have been, &c. I might be, &c. I would be, &c. The old form of the time past, If I were, is obsolete. Future Time. If I shall be, &c. If I should be, &c. I will be, &c[.] The auxiliary is often omitted, If I be, &c. Add a passive particle to the foregoing, and you have a combination of words, answering to the passive verb of the Greeks and Romans; "I am loved, I was loved." PRINCIPAL VERBS. INFINITIVE. To write. To love. INDICATIVE. Present Time. I write--love We write--love Thou writest--lovest Ye or you write--love ----- p. 127 He writes--loves They write--love writeth--loveth Past time. I wrote--loved We } Thou wrotest--lovedst Ye or you} wrote, loved He wrote--loved They } Future Time. I shall or will } write We shall or will } write Thou shalt or wilt} or Ye or you shall or will} or He shall or will } love They shall or will } love IMPERATIVE MODE. Write thou, or Write ye or you Write Write Love thou Love ye or you Love Love The foregoing inflections are all which it is necessary the learner should commit to memory, at least when he begins grammar. PARTICLES and ABBREVIATIONS. Q. What do grammarians call particles? A. All those small words which connect nouns, verbs and sentences: as, and, for[,] from, with, &c. Q. What are these words? A. They are mostly abbreviations or corruptions of old nouns and verbs. Q. What is their use? A. Their great advantage is to enable us to express our thoughts with dispatch, by saving repetitions; or by conveying several ideas with one word. Q. How may the abbreviations be distributed? A. Into conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs. Q. What is the particular use of conjunctions. A. To connect words and sentences; as, four and three make seven. Thomas studies, but John does not. Q. Which are the conjunctions? A. Those most generally used are the following: And, if, not, either, since, unless, also, but, neither, therefore, though, else, or, yet, because, wherefore, whether. Q. What is the use of prepositions? A. They are commonly placed before nouns or other words, to express some relation. Q. Which are the particles called prepositions? A. These, which may stand alone and are called separable prepositions, viz. A, for, till, above, before, from, until, about, behind, in, into, to, ----- [page image] p. 128 after, beneath, on, upon, towards, against, below, out, of, under, among, or amongst, between, over, with, at, betwixt, thro'[,] within, amidst, beyond, by, during, without. The following are used with other words, and are therefore called inseparable prepositions: A, be, con, dis, mis, per, pre, re, sub, un. Q. What is the use of adverbs? A. To express circumstances of time, place and degree, &c. Q. Which are some of the most common adverbs? A. Already, alway, by and by, else, ever, enough, far, here, how, hither, thither, whither, indeed, much, do, not, never, now, often, perhaps, rather, seldom, then, thence, there, very, when, where, whilst, or while, yesterday. Besides these, there are great numbers of others, and particularly those formed by ly, added to the adjectives--honest, honestly. Q. What do we call such words as alas, oh, fie, pish, &c. A. Interjections. These sounds do not constitute any part of language. They are merely expressions of passions which are sudden and irregular. SENTENCES. Q. What is a sentence? A. A sentence is a number of words, ranged in proper order, and making complete sense[.] Q. What does the formation of sentences depend on? A. On agreement and government. Q. What is agreement? A. When one word stands connected with another word, in the same number, case, gender, and person. Q. What is government? A. It is when one word causes another to be in some case or mode. R U L E. I. A verb must agree with its nominative case, in number and person. E X A M P L E S. In the solemn style: Thou readest; he readeth; ye read. In the familiar style: I go; he goes; we go; you go. R U L E II. Two or more nouns singular, connected by a copulative conjunction, must have verbs, pronouns and nouns, agreeing with them in the plural number. E X A M P L E S. 1. Envy and vanity are detestable vices. 2. Brutush and Cassius were brothers: They were friends to Roman liberty. R U L E III. Nouns of multitude, though they are in the singular number ----- p. 129 may have a verb and pronoun, agreeing with them either in the singular or plural. Examples. The assembly is or are very numerous; they are very much divided. "My people is or are foolish; they have not known me." The company was or were noisy. Rule IV. An adjective must agree with its noun in number. Participles in the nature of adjectives, refer to some noun, but have no variation. Examples. This man, that boy, these men, those boys, this kind. Rule V. Relatives, and pronouns must agree with their antecedent in number, gender, and person. Examples. 1. This is the boy who studies with diligence; he will make a scholar. 2. The girl who sits beside you is very modest; she will be a very amiable woman. 3. The pen which you gave me, is good; it writes very well. Rule VI. If no nominative comes between the relative and the verb,the relative is the nominative. Examples. This is the man who taught rhetoric. The estates of those who have taken arms against their country, ought to be confiscated. We have a constitution which secures our rights. Rule VII. But if a nominative comes between the relative and the verb, the relative is governed by the following verb of some other word. Examples. This is the man whom I esteem, whose virtues merit distinction, and whom I am happy to oblige. Rule VIII. Two nouns signifying the same thing, must be put in the same case, and are said to be in apposition; as "Paul the apostle." "Alexander the conqueror." But if they signify different things and imply property, the first is put in the possessive case, by adding s, separated from the word by an apostrophe. Examples. This is John's paper. We admire a man's courage, and a lady's virtue. Rule IX. Transitive verbs govern the objective case. Examples. 1. I admire her. She saw him. The scripture directs us. 2. Religion honors its votaries. Shame follows vice. R U L E X. The answer must be in the same case as the question, it being always governed by the verb that asks the question, though the verb is not expressed. ----- [page image] p. 130 E X A M P L E S. Questions. Answers. Who wrote this book? George. Who is this? he Whom do you see? them Whom do you admire? her Rule XI. Prepositions govern the objective case. Examples. I write for him. Give the book to her. Ye will ride with them or with us. Rule XII. Conjunctions connect like cases and modes. Examples. You and I are both present. He and she sit together. It was told to him and me. It is disagreeable to them and us. Rule XIII The infinitive mode follows a verb, a noun or an adjective. Examples. 1. It follows a verb, as, let us learn to practise virtue. 2. A noun; as you have a fine opportunity to learn. 3. An adjective; as, my friend is worthy to be trusted. Rule XIV. A participle, with a preposition preceding it, answers to the Latin general, and may govern an objective case. E X A M P L E S By avoiding evil, | By shewing him by doing good. | in observing them, by seeking peace; and | for esteeming us, by pursuing it. | by punishing them. Rule XV. A nominative case, joined with a participle, often stands independent of the sentence. This is called the case absolute. Examples. The sun being risen, it will be warm. They all consenting, the vote was passed. "Jesus conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place." Rule XVI. An adverb must always stand near the word which it is designed to affect or modify. ----- p. 131 ADDITIONAL LESSONS. The Three little Boys and their three Cakes. I WILL tell you a story.--There was a little boy whose name was Harry; and his papa and mamma sent him to school. Now Harry was a clever fellow, and loved his book; and got to be first in his class. So his mamma got up one morning very early, and called Betty the maid, and said, Betty, I think we must make a cake for Harry, for he has learned his book very well. And Betty said, yes, with all my heart. So they made a nice cake. It was very large, and stuffed full of plumbs and sweetmeats, orange and citron; and it was iced over with sugar; it was white and smooth on the top, like snow. So this cake was sent to the school. When little Harry saw it, he was very glad, and jumped about for joy, and he hardly stayed for a knife to cut a piece, but gnawed it like a little dog. So he ate till the bell rung for school, and after school he ate again, and ate till he went to bed: nay, his bedfellow told me that he laid his cake under his pillow, and sat up in the night to eat some. So he ate till it was all gone.--But presently after, this little boy was sick and ill: And every body said, I wonder what is the matter with Harry. He used to be so brisk, and play about more nimbly than any of the boys; and now he looks pale and is very ill. And somebody said, Harry has had a very rich cake, and ate it all up very soon, and that has made him ill. And somebody said, Harry has had a very rich cake, and ate it all up very soon, and that has made him ill. So they sent for Dr. Camomile, and gave him, I do not know how much bitter stuff. Poor Harry did not like it at all; but he was forced to take it, or else he would have died you know. So at last he got well again, but his mamma said she would send him no more cakes. Now there was another boy was one of Harry's school-fellows; his name was Peter; the boys used to call him Peter Careful. And Peter had written his mamma a neat pretty letter--there was not one blot in it all. So his mamma sent him a cake. Now Peter thought with himself, I will not make myself sick with this good cake, as silly Harry did; I will keep it a good while. So he took the cake and tugged it up stairs. It was very ----- [page image] p. 132 heavy: he could hardly carry it. And he locked it up in his box, and once a day he crept slyly up stairs, and ate a very little piece, and then locked his box again. So he kept it several weeks, and it was not gone, for it was very large; but behold! the mice got into his box and nibbled some. And the cake grew dry and mouldy, and at last was good for nothing at all. So he was obliged to throw it away, and it grieved him to the very heart, and nobody was sorry for him. Well; there was another little boy at the same school, and his name was Billy. And one day his mamma sent him a cake, because she loved him dearly, and he loved her dearly. So when the cake came, Billy said to his school-fellows, I have got a cake, come let us go and eat it. So they came about him like a parcel of bees; and Billy took a slice of cake himself, and then gave a piece to one, and a piece to another, till it was almost gone. Then Billy put the rest by, and said, I will eat it to-morrow. So he went to play, and the boys all played together very merrily. But presently after an old blind fiddler came into the court. He had a long white beard; and because he was blind he had a little dog in a string to lead him. So he came into the court, and sat down on a stone, and said, my pretty lads, if you will, I will play you a tune. And they left off their sport, and came and stood round him. And Billy saw that while he played the tears ran down his cheeks. And Billy said, old man, why dost thou cry? And the old man said because I am very hungry--I have no body to give me any dinners or suppers--I have nothing in the world but the little dog; and I cannot work. If I could work, I would. Then Billy went, without saying a word, and fetched the rest of his cake which he had intended to have eaten another day; and he said, here, old man! here is some cake for you. The man said where is it? for I am blind, I cannot see it. So Billy put it into his hat. And the fiddler thanked him; and Billy was more glad than if he had eaten ten cakes. Pray which do you love best? Do you love Harry, or Peter, or Billy best? ----- p. 133 THE FOUR SEASONS. O THAT winter could but last forever! cried little Frank, as he came home from sliding upon the ice, after amusing himself by making figures with the snow in the garden. Mr. Goodman, his Father, hearing this exclamation, called to him, and said, Frank, you will oblige me by writing down that wish in my tablets. Frank instantly obeyed, though with a hand that was shaking with cold. The winter however soon passed away, and the spring succeeded it. Frank walked out one morning with his father, along a bank that was bordered with hyacinths, auriculas and narcisses, and was almost transported with delight, while he breathed their fragrance, and admired their freshness and beauty. These, said Mr. Goodman, are the productions of spring. They are brilliant, but they are very short lived. Oh! answered Frank, that it was but always spring! Will you write that wish in my tablet? said his father. Frank, jumping with high spirits and joy, readily complied. The spring, nevertheless was soon replaced by the summer. Frank, one afternoon, went out with his father and mother, and some persons of his own age, to walk in a neighbouring village. They observed, as they proceeded, the most beautiful variety of views and objects; now they admired the young green corn, waving lightly with the wind, like the sea in its gentlest motion; and now a meadow enamelled with a thousand flowers. Now they saw little lambs frisking and bounding on the hills; and now little chickens were playing gambols around the hen. They regaled themselves with cherries, strawberries, and other fruits of the season; and they passed the whole day in sporting in the fields. Do not you find, Frank, said his father, when they were returning home, that summer hath its pleasures? //M// ----- [page image] p. 134 O yes, answered Frank, how I wish it was to last the whole year! This wish also, at the desire of his father, he wrote in his tablets. At length came the autumn. All the family now went to see and enjoy the harvest. It was not quite so hot as in summer; the air was soft, and the sky was serene. The waggons were loaded with rich sheaves of golden corn, the orchards were blooming with ripe plumbs and crimson mulberries; and the branches of the apple-trees were bending with their fruit. This was a day of feast and frolick to Frank, who loved nothing so much as green gages and rich plumbs, and who was allowed the full enjoyment of gathering them himself. This fine season, said his father to him, will soon be over; the winter is advancing to us with great strides, to take the place of autumn. O how I wish, cried Frank, that it would stop by the road, and that the autumn would never go away from us! Mr. Goodman. And should you like that, Frank. Frank. That I should, I assure you, papa. But pray, cried his father, taking his tablets from his pocket, look a little at what is written here. Read it aloud. Frank (reading.) O that winter would last forever! Mr. Goodman. Now look and read two or three leaves further. Frank (reading.) O that it was but always spring! Mr. Goodman. Look now at this page, what do you find there? Frank (reading.) I wish that summer was to last all the year round. Mr. Goodman. Do you know the hand writing of all this? Frank. Yes, papa, it's my own. Mr. Goodman. And what was it you were wishing just now? Frank. That winter would stop by the road; and autumn never go away from us. Mr. Goodman. This is really worth attention. In ----- p. 135 winter, you wished it would always be winter; in the spring that it should always be spring; in the summer that it should always be summer; and now to-day in the autumn, you wish that it should always be autumn. Do you reflect at all upon what may be gathered from wishes so contradictory? Frank. Why I suppose, papa, that all the seasons are good in their turn. Mr. Goodman. Yes, my dear, they are all good, and fertile in riches, and in pleasures. God understands much better than we limited creatures that we are, how to direct and govern their retreat and their approach. Had it depended upon you last winter, we should have seen no more either of spring, summer or autumn. You would have covered the earth with a perpetual frost, and have been a stranger to all pleasures but that of sliding upon the ice, and of forming figures with the snow. How many blessings and enjoyments would you have been deprived of by this arrangement! It is most fortunate for us, that it is not in our power to regulate the course of nature. All happiness else would be over with us for ever, merely by the grant of our presumptuous wishes. ============================================================ Familiar PHRASES, and easy DIALOGUES for young Beginners. LESSON I. SIR, your most humble servant. I have the pleasure to be yours. I hope you are very well. I am very well, Sir, I thank you. How do they do at your house?--They are all well. And you Madam, how do you do? Pretty well. Very well. Is all your family well?--Perfectly well. How does your father do, your mother and your sisters? You do them much honour; they are all in good health. I am glad of having the pleasure to see you in good health. I am much oblig'd to you. Now I think on it how does your brother do? Exceedingly well; or indifferently well. ----- [page image] p. 136 Does your brother go to school? Yes, Sir, and my sisters too. What do they learn? They learn writing and English grammar. I hope they make good improvement of their time. Their instructor tells us that they are diligent, and make good progress in their studies. I am glad to hear it; I hope to have the pleasure of seeing them at the next holy-days. Sir, they will be no less happy to see you. Farewell. Present my most humble respects to your parents. I will, Sir; and must beg you will present my compliments to your sisters. II. Whither are you going so early this morning? I am going on an errand. Will you stop a few minutes? By no means; my mamma tells me, when I go on an errand, I must not stop a moment. Well, I would not have you disobey your mamma: but how does your brother do? He is very sick. What ails him? He has a fever. How long has he been sick? About nine days. Is he thought to be in a dangerous condition? Very dangerous indeed. What remedy does the Doctor prescribe? I do not know; but am in haste, and must bid you good b'ye. Good b'ye. III. Is it true that you have heard good news? It is true indeed. Do you believe what you have heard? I am very certain it is true. I think I may rely on your word. I would not tell a lie for all America. Will you drink a dish of tea? ----- p. 137 Sir, I am much oblig'd to you, I choose not to drink any. What! do you not choose to drink any! No, Sir, I am not fond of it. Perhaps you like coffee better. No, Sir, I like chocolate. At what o'clock shall you prefer it. At eight. IV. It is very fine weather. Do you believe it will rain to-day? The sky is very clear and serene. It is the finest season of the year. What season do you like best? The summer is the most agreeable. It is sometimes very cold in the spring. I do not like winter at all. I am obliged to attend school both winter and summer. How do you like your master? Exceedingly well; he is an agreeable man. Is he pleasant and good natured? Always so; I never saw him angry. Is he strict in keeping orders in the school? Very strict indeed. He will not permit us to whisper or play, or be idle a single moment. Does he scold and fret, and find fault at trifles? Not in the least. If one breaks a law he is sure to be punished: But the master though he is very severe, never appears to be in a passion. You esteem it a pleasure as well as an advantage to be under the care of such a man. Indeed I do, and so do all in the school. I hardly know which we love most, the master or our books. ============================================================ DEATH THE DESTROYER. CHILD of mortality, whence comest thou? Why is thy countenance sad, and why are thine eyes red with weeping? I have seen the rose in its beauty; it spread its leaves to the morning sun--I returned, it was dying upon its //M [2]// ----- [page image] p. 138 stalk! the grace of the form of its was gone; its loveliness was vanished away; the leaves thereof, were scattered on ground, and on one gathered them again. A stately tree grew on the plain; its branches was covered with verdure; its boughs spread wide, and made a goodly shadow; the trunk was like a strong pillar; the roots were like crooked fangs; I returned, the verdure was nipt by the the [sic] east wind; the branches were lopped away by the axe; the worm had made its way into the trunk, and the heart thereof was decayed; it mouldered away, and fell to the ground. I have seen the insects sporting in the sunshine, and darting along the streams; their wings glittered with gold and purple; their bodies shone like the green emerald; they were more numerous than I could count; their motions were quicker than my eye could glance--I returned, they were brushed into the pool; they were perishing with the evening breeze; the swallow had devoured them; the pike had seized them; there were none found of so great a multitude. I have seen a man in the pride of his strength; his cheeks glowed with beauty; his limbs wre full of activity--he leaped--he-walked--he rejoiced in that he was more excellent than those--I returned, he lay stiff and cold, on the bare ground; his feet could no longer move, nor his hands stretch themselves out; his life was departed from him; and the breath out of his nost[r]ils--therefore do I weep, because DEATH is in the world, the spoiler is among the works of God; all that is made, must be destroyed, all that is born, must die. ============================================================ Appendix. A MORAL CATECHISM: OR, LESSONS FOR SATURDAY. Question. WHAT is moral virtue? Answer. It is an honest upright conduct in all our dealings with men. Q. Can we always determine what is honest and just? A. Perhaps not in every instance, but in general it is not difficult. ----- p. 139 Q. What rule have we to direct us[?] A. God's word contained in the Bible has furnished all necessary rules to direct our conduct. Q. In what part of the Bible are these rules to be found? A. In almost every part; but the most important duties between men are summed up in the beginning of Matthew, in Christ's sermon on the mount. OF HUMILITY. Q. What is humility? A. A lowly temper of mind. Q. What are the advantages of humility? A. The advantages of humility in this life are very numerous and great. The humble man has few or no enemies. Every one loves him and is ready to do him good. If he is rich and prosperous people do not envy him; if he is poor and unfortunate, every one pities him, and is disposed to alleviate his distress. Q. What is pride? A. A lofty high-minded disposition. Q. Is pride commendable? A. By no means. A modest self-approving opinion of our own good deeds is very right. It is natural; it is agreeable; and a spur to good actions. But we should not suffer our hearts to be blown up with pride, whatever great and good deeds we have done; for pride brings upon us the ill will of mankind and displeasure of our Maker. Q. What effect has humility in our own minds and our happiness in this life. A. Humility is attended with peace of mind and self-satisfaction. The humble man is not disturbed with cross accidents, and is never fretful and uneasy; nor does he repine when others grow rich. He is happy, because his mind is at ease. Q. What is the effect of pride on a man's happiness? A. Pride exposes a man to numberless disappointments and mortifications. The proud man expects more attention and respect will be paid him, than he deserves, or than others are willing to pay him. He is neglected, laughed at, and despised, and this treatment frets him; so that his own mind becomes a seat of torment. A proud man cannot be a happy man. Q. What has Christ said respecting the virtue of humility? A. He has said, "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for their's is the kingdom of heaven." Poorness of spirit is humility; and this humble temper prepares a man for heaven, where all is peace and love. OF MERCY. Q. What is mercy? ----- [page image] p. 140 A. It is a tenderness of heart. Q. What are the advantages of this virtue? A. The exercise of it tends to happify every one about us. Rulers of a merciful temper will make their good subjects happy; and will not torment the bad with need[l]ess severity. Parents and masters will not abuse their children and servants with harsh treatment. More love, more confidence, more happiness, will subsist among men, and of course society will be happier. Q. Should not beasts as well as men be treated with mercy? A. They ought indeed. It is wrong to give needless pain even to a beast. Cruelty to the brutes shews a man has a hard heart; and if a man is unfeeling to a beast, he will not have much feeling for men. If a man treats his beast with cruelty, beware of trusting yourself in his power. He will probably make a severe master and a cruel husband. Q. How does cruelty shew its effects? A. A cruel disposition is usually exercised upon those who are under its power. Cruel rulers make severe laws, which injure the persons and property of their subjects. Cruel officers execute laws in a severe manner when it is not necessary for public good. A cruel husband abuses his wife and children. A cruel master acts the tyrant over his apprentices and servants. The effects of cruelty are hatred, quarrels, tumults, and wretchedness. Q. What does Christ say of the merciful man? A. He says he is "blessed for he shall obtain mercy." He who shows mercy and tenderness to others, will be treated with tenderness and compassion himself. OF PEACE MAKERS. Q. Who are peace makers? A. All who endeavour to prevent quarrels and disgrace among men; or to reconcile those who are separated by strife. Q. Is it unlawful to contend with others on any occasion? A. It is impossible to avoid some differences with men; but disputes should be always conducted with temper and moderation. The man who keeps his temper will not be rash, and do or say things he will afterwards repent of. And though men should sometimes differ, still they should be friends. They should be ready to do kind offices for each other. Q. What is the reward of the peace maker? A. He shall be "blessed, and called the child of God[.]" The mild, peaceable and friendly man resembles God. What an amiable character is this! To be like our heavenly Father, that lovely, perfect, and glorious being, who is the source of all good, is to be the best and happiest of men. ----- p. 141 OF PURITY OF HEART. Q. What is a pure heart? A. A heart free from all bad desires and inclined to conform to the divine will in all things. Q. Should a man's intentions as well as his actions be good? A. Most certainly. Actions cannot be called good, unless the[y] proceed from good motives. We should wish to see and make a[ll] [sic] all men better and happier--we should rejoice at their prosperity. This is benevolence. Q. What reward is promised to the pure in heart? A. Christ has declared "they shall see God." A pure heart is like God, and those who possess it shall dwell in his presence, and enjoy his favour forever. OF ANGER. Q. Is it right ever to be angry? A. It is right in certain cases that we should be angry; as when gross affronts are offered to us, and injuries doen us by design. A suitable spirit of resentment in such cases will obtain justice for us, and protect us from further insults. Q. By what rules shall anger be governed? A. We should never be angry without cause; that is, we should be certain that a man means to affront, injure, or insult us, before we suffer ourselves to be angry. It is wrong, it is mean, it is a mark of a little mind, to take fire at every trifling dispute. And when we have real cause to be angry, we should observe moderation. We should never be in a passion. A passionate man is like a mad man and is always inexcusable. We should be cool even in anger; and be angry no longer than to obtain justice. In short, we should be "angry and sin not[.]" OF REVENGE. Q. What is revenge? A. It is to injure a man because he has injured us. Q. Is this justifiable? A. Never, in any possible case. Revenge is perhaps the meanest as well as wickedest vice in society. Nothing but murder can equal it. Q. What shall a man do to obtain justice when he is injured? A. In general, laws have made provision for doing justice to every man, and it is right and honourable, when a man is injured, that he should seek recompence. But a recompence is all he can demand, and of that he should not be his own judge, but submit the matter to judges appointed by authority. Q. But suppose a man insults us in such a manner that the law cannot give redress? A. Then forgive him. "If a man strikes you on one cheek, turn the other to him," and let him repeat the abuse, rather than strike him. ----- [page image] p. 142 Q. But if we are in danger from the blows of another, may we not defend ourselves? A. Most certainly. We have always a right to defend our persons, property and families. But we have no right to fight and [abuse] people merely for revenge. It is nobler to forgive. "Love [ou]r enemies--bless them that curse you--do good to them that [h]ate you--pray for those that use you ill"--these are the com[m]ands of the blessed Saviour of men. The man who does this is [g]reat and good; he is as much above the little mean revengeful man, as virtue is above vice, or as heaven is higher than hell. OF JUSTICE. Q. What is justice. A. It is giving to every man his due. Q. Is it always easy to know what is just? A. It is generally easy; and where there is any difficulty in determining, let a man consult the golden rule--"To do to others, what he could reasonable [sic] wish they should do to them, in the same circumstance." Q. What are the ill effects of injustice? A. If a man does injustice, or rather if he refuses to do justice, he must be compelled to do it. Then follows a law-suit, with a series of expenses, and what is worse, ill blood and enmity between the parties. Somebody is always the worse for law-suits, and of course society is less happy. OF GENEROSITY. Q. What is generosity? A. It is some act of kindness performed for anther, which strict justice does not demand. Q. Is this a virtue? A. It is indeed a noble virtue. To do justice, is well; but to do more than justice, is still better, and may proceed from nobler motives. Q. What has Christ said respecting generosity? A. He has commanded us to be generous in this passage, "Whoever shall compel (or urge) you to go a mile, go with him two." Q. Are we to perform this literally? A. The meaning of the command will not always require this. But in general we are to do more for others than they ask, provided we can do it without essentially injuring ourselves. We ought cheerfully to suffer many inconveniences to oblige others, though we are not rquired to do ourselves any essential injury. Q. Of what advantage is generosity to the man who exercised it? A. It lays others under obligations to the generous man and the probability is that he will be repaid threefold. Every man on earth wants favors at some time or other of his life; and if we will not ----- p. 143 help others will not help us. It is for a man's interest to be generous. Q. Ought we to do kind actio[n]s, because it is for our interest? A. This may be a motive at all times but if it is the principal motive it is less honourable. We ought to do good, as we have an opportunity, at all times and to all men, whether we expect a reward or not; for it we do good, somebody is the happier for it. This alone is reason enough, why we should do all the good in our power. OF GRATITUDE. Q. What is gratitude? A. A thankfulness of heart for favors received. Q. Is a duty to be thankful for favors? A. It is a duty and a virtue. A man who does not feel grateful for kind acts done for him by others, does not deserve favors of any kind. He ought to be shut out from the society of the good. He is worse than a savage, for a savage, never forgets and act of kindness. Q. What is the effect of true gratitude? A. It softens the heart towards the generous man, and every thing which subdues the pride and other unsocial passions of the heart, fits a man to be a better citizen, a better neighbor, a better husband and a better friend. A man who is sensible of favors and ready to acknowledge them, is more inclined to perform kind offices, not only towards his benefactor, but towards all others. OF TRUTH. Q. What is truth? A. It is speaking and acting agreeably to fact. Q. Is a duty to speak truth at all times? [sic] A. If we speak at all, we should tell the truth. It is not always necessary to tell what we know. There are many things which concern ourselves & others, which we had better not publish to the world. Q[.] What rules are there respecting the publishing of truth? A. 1. When we are called upon to testify in Courts, we should speak the whole truth, and that without disguise. To leave out some circumstances, or to give a colouring to others, with a view to favor some side more than the other, is to the highest degree criminal. 2. When we know something of our neighbor which is against his character, we may not publish it unless to prevent his doing an injury to another person. e[.] When we sell any thing to another, we ought not to represent the article to be better than it really is. If there are faults in it which may easily be seen, the law of an does not require us to inform the buyer of these faults, because he may see them himself. But it is not honourable nor generous, nor strictly honest to conceal even apparent faults. But when faults are out of sight, the seller ----- [page image] p. 144 ought to tell the buyer of these. If he does not he is a cheat and a down right knave. Q. What are the ill effects of lying and deceiving? A. The man who lies, deceives or cheats, loses his reputation. No person will believe him even when he speaks truth; [h]e is shunned as a pest to society. Falsehood and cheating destroy all confidence between man and man; they raise jealousies and suspicions among men; they thus weaken the bands of society and destroy happiness. Besides, cheating often robs people of their property, and makes them poor and wretched. OF CHARITY AND GIVING ALMS. Q. What is charity? A. It signifies giving to the poor, or it is a favourable opinion of men and their actions. Q. When and how far is it our duty to give to the poor? A. When others really want what we can spare without material injury to ourselves, it is our duty to give them something to relieve their wants. Q. When persons are reduced to want by there [sic] own laziness and vices, by drunkenness, gambling and the like, is it a duty to relieve them? A. In general it is not. The man who gives money and provisions to a lazy vicious man, becomes a partaker of his guilt. Perhaps it may be right, to give such a man a meal of victuals to keep him from starving, and it is certainly right to feed his wife and family and make them comfortable. Q[.] Who are the proper objects of charity? A. Persons who are reduced to want by sickness, unavoidable losses by fire, storms at sea or land, drouth or accidents of other kinds. To such persons we are commanded to give; and it is our own interest to be charitable; for we are all liable to misfortunes, and may want charity ourselves. Q. In what manner should we bestow favours? A. We should do it with gentleness and affection; putting on no airs of pride and arrogance. We should also take no pains to publish our charities; but rather to conceal them; for if we boast of our generosity we discover that we give for mean selfish motives. Christ commands us, in giving alms, not to let our left hand know what our right hand doeth. Q. How can charity be exercised in our opinions of others? A. By thinking favorable of them and their actions. Every man has his faults; but charity will not put a harsh construction on another's conduct. It will not charge his conduct to bad views and motives, unless this appears very clear indeed. ----- p. 145 OF AVARICE. Q. What is avarice? A. An excessive desire of gaining wealth. Q. Is this commendable? A. It is not; but one of the meanest of vices. Q. Can an avaricious man be an honest man. A. It is hardly possible; for the lust of gain is almost always accompanied with a disposition to take mean and undue advantages of others. Q. What effects has avarice upon the heart? A. It contracts the heart--narrows the sphere of benevolence-- blunts all the fine feelings of sensibility, and sours the mind towards society. An avaricious man, a miser, a niggard, is wrapped up in selfishness, like some worms, which crawl about and eat for some time to fill themselves, then wind themselves up in separate coverings and die. Q. What injury is done by avarice in society? A. Avarice gathers together more property, than the owner wants, and keeps it hoarded up, where it does no good. The poor are thus deprived of some business, some means of support; the property gains nothing to the community; and somebody is less happy by means of this hoarding of wealth. Q. In what proportion does avarice do hurt? A. In an exact proportion to its power of doing good. The miser's heart grows less in proportion as his estate grows larger[.] The more money he has, the more he has people in his power and the more he grinds the face of the poor. The larger the tree and the more spreading its branches, the more small plants are shaded and robbed of their nourishment. OF FRUGAL[I]TY AND ECONOMY. Q. What is the distinction between frugality and avarice. A. Frugality is a prudent saving of property from needless waste. Avarice gathers more and spends less than is wanted. Q. What is economy? A. It is frugality in expenses--it is a prudent management of one's estate. It disposes of property for useful purposes without waste. --To the saving of every thing which it is not necessary to spend for comfort and convenience; and the keeping one's expenses within his income or earnings. Q. What is wastefulness? A. It is the spending of money for what is not wanted. If a man drinks a dram, which is not necessary for him, or buys a cane which he does not want, he wastes his money. He injures himself, as much as if he had thrown away his money. Q. Is not waste occasioned often by mere negligence? //N [2]// ----- [page image] p. 146 A. Very often. The man who does not keep h is house and barn well covered; who does not keep good fences about his fields: who suffers his farming utensils to lie out in the rain or on the ground; or his cattle to waste manure in the highway, is as much a spendthrift as the tavern hunter, the tipler and the gamester. Q. Do not careless slovenly people work harder than the neat and orderly? A. Much harder. It is more labour to destroy a growth of sturdy weeds, than to pull them up when they first spring from the ground. So the disorders and the abuses which grow out of a sloven's carelessness, in time, become almost incurable. Hence such people work like slaves, and to little effect. OF INDUSTRY. Q. What is industry? A. It is a diligent attention to business in our several occupations. Q. Is labour a curse or a blessing? A. Hard labour or drudgery is often a curse by making life toilsome and painful. But constant moderate labor is the greatest blessing. Q. Why then do people complain of it? A. Because they do not know the evils of not labouring. Labor keeps the body in health, and makes men relish all their enjoyments. "The sleep of the labouring man is sweet," so is his food. He walks cheerfully and whistling about his fields or shop, and scarcely knows pain. The rich and indolent first lose their health for want of action-- They turn pale, their bodies are enfeebled, they lose their appetite for food and sleep, they yawn out a tasteless stupid life without pleasure, and often useless to the world. Q. What are the other good effects of industry? A. One effect is to procure an estate. Our Creator has kindly united our duty, our interest and happiness: for the same labour which makes us healthy and cheerful, gives us wealth. Another good effect of industry is, it keeps men from vice. Not all the moral discourses ever delivered to mankind, have so much influence in checking the bad passions of men, in keeping order and peace, and maintaining moral virtue, in society as industry. Business is a source of health; of prosperity, or virtue, and obedience to law. To make good subjects and good citizens, the first requisite is to educate every young person, in some kind of business. The possession of millions should not excuse a young man from application to business, and that parent or guardian who suffers his child or his ward to be bred in indolence, becomes accessary to the vices and ----- p. 147 disorders of society, he is guilty of "not providing for his household, and is worse than an infidel." OF CHEERFULNESS. Q. Is cheerfulness a virtue? A. It doubtless is, and a moral duty to practise it. Q. Can we be cheerful when we please? A. In general it depends much on ourselves. We can often mould our temper into a cheerful frame--We can frequent company and other objects calculated to inspire us with cheerfulness. To indulge a habitual gloominess of ind is weakness and sin. Q. What are the effects of cheerfulness on ourselves? A. Cheerfulness is a great preservative of health, over which it is our duty to watch with care. We have no right to sacrifice our health by the indulgence of a gloomy state of mind. Besides, a cheerful man will do more business and do it better than a melancholy one. Q. What are the effects of cheerfulness on others? A. Cheerfulness is readily communicated to others, by which means their happiness is increased. We are all influenced by sympathy, and naturally partake of the joys and sorrows of others. Q. What effect has melancholy on the heart? A. It hardens and benumbs it. It chills the warm affections of love and friendship, and prevents the exercise of the social passions. A melancholy person's life is all night and winter. It is as unnatural as perpetual darkness and frost. Q. What shall one do when overwhelmed with grief? A. The best method of expelling grief from the mind, or of quieting its pains, is to change the objects that are about us; to ride from place to place and frequent cheerful company. It is our duty so to do, especially when grief sits heavy on the heart. Q. Is it not right to grieve for the loss of near friends? A. It is certainly right, but we should endeavour to moderate our grief, and not suffer it to impair our health, or to grow into a settled melancholy. The use of grief is to soften the heart and make us better. But when our friends are dead, we can render them no further service. Our duty to them ends, when we commit them to the grave; but our duty to ourselves, our families and surviving friends, requires that we perform to them the customary offices of life. We should therefore remember our departed friends only to imitate their virtue; and not to pine away with useless sorrow. Q. Has not religion a tendency to fill the mind with gloom? A. True religion never has this effect. Superstition and false notions of God often make men gloomy; but true rational piety and religion have the contrary effect. They fill the man with joy ----- [page image] p. 148 and cheerfulness; and the countenance of a truly pious man should always wear a secure simile. Q. What has Christ said concerning gloomy Christians? A. He has pronounced them hypocrites; and commanded his followers not to copy their sad countenances and disfigured faces; but even in their acts of humiliation to "anoint their hands and wash their feet." Christ intended by this, that religion does not consist in, nor require a monkish sadness and gravity; on the other hand he intimates that such appearance of sanctity are generally the marks of hypocrisy. He expressly enjoins upon his followers, marks of cheerfulness. Indeed the only true ground of perpetual cheerfulness, is a consciousness of ever having done well, and an assurance of divine favour. ============================================================ A FEDERAL CATECHISM Containing a short EXPLANATION of the CONSTITUTION of the UNITED STATES of AMERICA, and the Principles of Government. For the Use Schools. [sic] Q. WHAT is a constitution of Government? A. A constitution of government, or a political constitution, consists in certain standing rules or ordinances, agreed upon by a nation or state, determining the manner in which the supreme powers shall be exercised over that nation or state, or rather how the legislative power shall be formed. Q. How many kinds of constitutions are there; or in how many ways may the sovereign power be exercised over a people? A. Constitutions are commonly divided into three kinds; monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. Q. Explain these sorts of governments? A. When the sovereign power is exercised by one person, the constitution is a monarchy. When a few rich men or nobles, have the whole supreme power in their hands, the constitution is an aristocracy. When the supreme power is exercised by all the citizens in a general meeting or assembly, the constitution is a democracy. Q. What are the faults of despotic governments? A. In a despotic government, a whole nation is at the disposal of one person. If this person the prince, is of a cruel or tyrannical disposition, he may abuse his subjects, take away their lives, their property or their liberty. Q. What objections are there to aristocracy? A. In an aristocracy, where a few rich men govern, the poor may be oppressed, the nobles may make laws to suit themselves ----- p. 149 and ruin the common people. Besides, the nobles having equal power one with another, may quarrel and throw the state into confusion; in this case there is no person of superior power to settle the dispute. Q. What are the defects of democracy? A. In a democracy, where the people meet for the purpose of making laws, there are commonly tumults and disorders. A small city may sometimes be governed in this manner; but if the citizens are numerous, their assemblies make a crowd or mob, where the debates cannot be carried on with coolness or candour, nor can arguments he heard: Therefore a pure democracy is generally a very bad government. It is often the most tyrannical government on earth; for a multitude is often rash, and will not hear reason. Q. Is there another and better form of government than any of these? A. There is. A REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC[,] in which the people freely choose deputies to make laws for them, is much the best form of government hitherto invented. Q. What are the peculiar advantages of representative governments? A. When deputies or representatives are chosen to make laws, they will commonly consult the interest of the people who choose them; and if they do not, the people can choose others in their their room. [sic] Besides, the deputies coming from all parts of a state, bring together all the knowledge and information necessary to show the true interest of the whole state; at the same time, being few ion number, they can hear arguments and debate peaceable on a subject. But the great security of such governments is, that the men who make laws are to be governed by them; so that they are not apt to do wrong wilfully. When men make laws for themselves, as well as for their neighbours, they are led by their own interest to make GOOD laws. Q. Which of the former kinds of government is adopted by the American States? A. The states are all governed by constitutions that fall under the name of representative republics. The people choose deputies to act for them in making laws; and in general, the deputies, when assembled, have as full power to make and repeal laws, as the whole body of freemen would have, if they were collected for the purpose. Q. By what name may we call the United States in their political capacity? A. A federal representaive republic. ----- [page image] p. 150 Q. How are the powers of government divided? A. Into the legislative, judicial, and executive. Q. What is meant by a legislative power? A. By legislative is understood that body or assembly of men who have the power of making laws and regulations for governing state. [sic] Q. Where does the power of making laws for the United States reside? A. By the constitution of the United States, the power of making laws is given to the representatives of the people chosen by the people or their legislatures, and assembled in two distinct houses. This body of representatives so assembled, is called "the Congress of the United States." Q. What are the two separate houses called? A. One is called the Senate, the other the house of Representatives. Q. How i[s] the senate formed. A. By two delegates from each state, chosen by the legislature of the state, for six years. Q. Why are not senators chosen every year? A. Because one branch of Congress is designed to be distinguished for firmness and knowledge of business. Q. How is the house of representatives formed? A. This branch of the national legislature is composed of delegates from the several states, chosen by the people, every second year. Q. Can every an in the states vote for delegates to Congress? A. By no mans. In almost every state some property is necessary to give a man a right to vote. In general, men who have no estate, pay no taxes, and who have no settled habitation, are not permitted to vote for rulers, because they have no interest to secure, they may be vagabonds or dishonest men, and may be bribed by the rich. Q. Why is congress divided into two houses? A. When the power of making laws is vested in a single assembly, bills may often pass without due deliberation. Whole assemblies of men may be rash, hasty, passionate, tumultuous, and whenever this happens it is safe to have some check to their proceedings, that they may not inure the public. One house therefore may be a check upon the other. Q. Why may Congress regulate the election of its own members or why is not this power left entirely to the states? A. For this good reason; a few states might by neglect, delay or wilfulness, prevent the meeting of a Congress, and destroy the ----- p. 151 federal government. It is necessary that Congress should have power to oblige the State to choose delegates, so that they may preserve their own existence. Q. It is not unjust that all should be bound to obey a law, when all do not consent to it? A. Every thing is JUST in government which is NECESSARY to the PUBLIC GOOD. It is impossible to bring all men to think alike on all subjects, so that if we wait for all opinions to be alike respecting laws, we shall have no laws at all. Q. How are the members of Congress paid? A. Out of the treasury of the United States, according to a law of Congress. Q. Would it not be politic to refuse them a reward, and let them serve their country for the honour of it? A. In such a case none but rich men could afford to serve as delegates; the government would then be wholly in the hands of the wealthy; whereas there are many men of little property, who are among the most able, wise and honest persons in a state. Q. How far do the powers of Congress extend? A. The powers of Congress extend to the regulation of all matters of a GENERAL NATURE, or such as concern ALL the United States. Q. Will not this national government in time destroy the state governments? A. It is not probable this w[i]ll be the case; indeed the national government is the best security of the state governments; for each state has pledged itself to support every state government. If it were not for our union a powerful state might conquer its weaker neighbour, and with this addition of power, conquer the next state, and so on, till the whole would be subject to one ambitious state. F I N I S.

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